Mwiturubani, Donald Anthony and Mwiturubani, Donald Anthony
HIV infections--Africa--Prevention, HIV infections--Africa, Teenagers--Sexual behavior--Africa, and AIDS (Disease) in adolescence--Africa
The five research reports that constitute this monograph are a fruit of the collaboration between the Council for the Development of Social Science Research in African (CODESRIA) and the Social Science Research Council (SSRC), two institutions with a longstanding interest in the study of youth and social transformations in Africa. Under the collaboration, 12 young African researchers were able to benefit from fellowships, workshops and the expertise of resource persons. The studies contribute significant empirical insights from five different countries (Tanzania, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Cameroon) to ongoing debates on how youth and social processes in Africa shape, and are shaped, by the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
362.196979200835, AIDS (Disease) in adolescence -- South Africa -- Port Elizabeth, AIDS (Disease) in adolescence -- South Africa -- Port Elizabeth -- Prevention, Youth -- South Africa -- Port Elizabeth -- Attitudes, HIV-positive youth -- Services for -- South Africa -- Port Elizabeth, Health education (Secondary) -- South Africa -- Port Elizabeth, HIV-positive youth -- Care -- South Africa -- Port Elizabeth, AIDS (Disease) -- South Africa -- Port Elizabeth -- Social aspects, Stigma (Social psychology) -- South Africa -- Port Elizabeth, Dora Nginza Wellness Clinic (Port Elizabeth, and South Africa)
This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of adolescents living with vertically acquired HIV receiving treatment, care and support services at Dora Nginza Wellness clinic, in Port Elizabeth, South Africa.Six adolescents living with vertically acquired HIV (four females and two males) between the ages of 16-17 years participated in in-depth semi-structured open-ended individual interviews. Tesch’s (1990) method of data analysis for qualitative research was used to analyse the interviews.Adolescents that participated in the study spoke widely about the outlook on their illness and their lives both in the past and present. They depicted fear, anxiety, pain and sadness in their lived experiences. They were anxious about their own death and had experienced illness and death of parents, siblings and close relatives due to HIV and AIDS. They described painful and traumatic life events related to their illness which included knowing their own HIV status and severe health problems and hospitalisations. They all learnt about their HIV status in early adolescence and choose not to disclose their status to people outside the family due to fear of rejection, stigma and discrimination. Taking ARVs was challenging to the participants due to side effects and strict medication schedules. Their school attendance and performance was affected by their illness. Family was an important resource of support. The participants had good experiences of HIV treatment at the Wellness clinic.The findings suggest that adolescents living with vertically acquired HIV faced a number of challenges in dealing with their disease and its treatment. They need intensive care and support services that enhance their positive self, facilitate self-disclosure and decrease and discourage stigma and discrimination at school and within their communities. Health Studies M.A. (Social Behavioural Studies in HIV/AIDS)
Adolescent, Counseling, High School, Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Learner, Perception, Voluntary testing, 362.1969792096824, AIDS (Disease) -- South Africa -- Madibeng District, AIDS (Disease) -- South Africa -- Madibeng District -- Prevention, HIV infections -- South Africa -- Madibeng District, Health education (Secondary) -- South Africa -- Madibeng District, Life skills -- Study and teaching (Secondary) -- South Africa -- Madibeng District, Preventive health services for teenagers -- South Africa -- Madibeng District, High School students -- Health and hygiene -- South Africa -- Madibeng District, and AIDS (Disease) in adolescence -- South Africa -- Madibeng District -- Prevention
The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions, attitudes, opinions and fears of the adolescent high school learners towards HIV counseling and testing at school.Quantitative, descriptive, exploratory research was conducted to determine if high school learners would like to be tested for HIV at school. Data collection was done using structured questionnaires. The respondents in the study were daytime high school learners (n=120) who were in grade 8 to 12, between ages of 12 to 18 years of age. The study highlighted that adolescents engage in sexual activities at an early age. The results revealed that there is lack of knowledge, unavailability of HCT services for adolescents and the resources to keep a girl child school. This behavior may result in adolescents contracting sexually transmitted infections and HIV, falling pregnant at an early age, which may force adolescent high school learners to drop out of school. However, the study shows that government has more to educate adolescent high school learners about HIV/AIDS to modify their perceptions and attitudes towards HIV counseling and testing. Health Studies M.A. (Health studies)
Teenagers--Sexual behaviour--KwaZulu-Natal., Theses--Gender studies., AIDS (Disease) in adolescence--KwaZulu-Natal--Inchanga., and AIDS (Disease) in adolescence--Social aspects--KwaZulu-Natal.
The HIV/AIDS pandemic is acknowledged as a disease that has harmfulimpacts on the social and economic development of developing countries.Much of the research on the pandemic has not, until recently concentrated onits impact on the education sector and on teenagers as people living with HIV.This study investigates the lives and experiences of HIV positive teenagelearners (main participants) in some Intshanga schools in KwaZulu-Natal. Asteenagers are essentially minors, and would be under the care of parents orother caregivers, it was necessary to learn more about the lives of theteenagers from caregivers in the community and from family members withinfamilies where there are individuals living with HIV. The study provides someinsight into how other people like family members and caregivers understandthe pandemic as well as the role they play in the lives of those infected by theHIV virus.Empirical data was collected over a period of a year (2004-2005) and yieldedthe following main findings:* Fear about disclosing one's status: HIV and AIDS are still not accepted asone of the significant realities of the lives of learners. It is regarded as ashameful disease which most members of the community prefer not to talkopenly about.* Effects on affected learners: Social, economic and cultural circumstancesand perspectives impact negatively on relationships in general and onrelationships significant to learners themselves, i.e. parent-child and adult.* Persons living with HIV are called names by those who are seemingly notaffected.* Teenagers report that they avoid using local healthcare services becausethey have on occasion experienced being verbally abused at these healthcare centres.* Teenagers are not assisted in dealing with peer pressure.* Teenagers are vulnerable to making disastrous choices. Thesis (M.A.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 2008.
HIV-positive youth--Psychological aspects--Gauteng--Pretoria., AIDS (Disease) in adolescence--Psychological aspects--Gauteng--Pretoria., HIV infections--Gauteng--Pretoria., Teenagers--Housing--Gauteng--Pretoria., Children--Institutional care--Gauteng--Pretoria., and Theses--Social work.
The roll-out of Anti-retroviral Therapy in South Africa has enabled perinatally HIV infected children to reach the adolescent phase. It is important to acknowledge that the psycho-social experiences of perinatally HIV infected children differ from other adolescents. This study explored the psychosocial experiences of perinatally HIV infected adolescents residing in Child and Youth Care Centres in Pretoria. Using qualitative interpretive-descriptive methodology, the sample consisted of eight perinatally HIV infected adolescents, two social workers and ten child and youth care workers from two Child and Youth Care Centres. Data was collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews with perinatally HIV positive adolescents and two focus groups were held with child and youth care workers and social workers. The use of these two data collection methods enhanced the reliability and trustworthiness of the data.Using social constructionism as the key conceptual framework, there were four key themes and subthemes that distilled from the interviews and focus groups. The results revealed that perinatally HIV infected adolescents have difficulties discussing their status and that they used blocking as a coping strategy to avoid the subject. Disclosure was difficult for the adolescents as they were acutely aware of stigma and discrimination. With regards to adherence to medication there was lack of self-efficacy as the adolescents relied mostly on Child and Youth care workers and social workers. Finally in both Child and Youth Care centres, lack of on-going disclosure and discussion about HIV hindered the availability of psychosocial support services.This study concludes that child and youth care centres should develop programs which focus on support topics such as sexuality, disclosure and self-esteem. The Department of Social development should implement psychosocial support training specifically for Child and Youth care workers and Social workers working with perinatally HIV positive children. Thesis (M.A.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 2012.
HIV infections -- South Africa -- Prevention, Stochastic models, Randomized controlled trials, Dissertations -- Mathematical sciences, Theses -- Mathematical sciences, Dissertations -- Mathematics, Theses -- Mathematics, and AIDS (Disease) in adolescence -- South Africa -- Prevention
Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2013. ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Adolescents are regarded as a high risk group in South Africa with the highesthuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence occurring in this group. Preventionamong adolescents is therefore a key in decreasing the HIV burden.This thesis aims to assist in the design of trials by simulating the potential outcomesof a combination prevention trial in adolescents. We develop a stochasticindividual-based model stratified by sex and age. We then use this model todetermine the impact of various prevention packages on HIV incidence amongadolescents participating in a hypothetical trial over a three year period. Thetrial that is simulated involves an intervention arm, in which adolescents areoffered a choice of a prevention methods (including medical male circumcision(MMC), oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral-based vaginalmicrobicides (ARV-VM)), and a control arm. We predict that the impactof a full prevention package on HIV incidence would be a 46% per personyear(PPY) (95% CI 45–47%) risk reduction. The combination of MMC andPrEP has a substantial impact on HIV incidence in males, with a 51% PPY(95% CI 49–53%) relative risk of HIV infection. Offering women the choice ofPrEP, a microbicide gel or a microbicide in the form of a vaginal ring would beless effective, with a 57% PPY (95% CI 56–58%) relative risk of HIV acquisition.This is not substantially different from the relative risk estimated whenthe vaginal ring alone is offered, as the ring is assumed to be the most accept able of the three prevention methods. We determine a sample size requirementof approximately 1013 in each arm of a trial would achieve 80% power to detecta statistically significant reduction in HIV risk. We find that the relative riskis sensitive to the assumed degree of correlation between condom use and theacceptability of the prevention method. We also find that the most efficienttrial design may be to offer both MMC and PrEP to males but to offer onlya microbicide ring to females. Further work is required to better understandthe processes by which adolescent prevention method choices are made. AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Adolessente word beskou as ‘n hoe risiko groep in Suid Afrika, met die hoogstemenslike immuniteitsgebrekvirus (MIV) insidensie in hierdie groep. Voorkomingvan MIV onder adolessente is daarom noodsaaklik om die MIV las teverminder. Die doel van hierdie tesis is om te help met die ontwerp van studiesdeur die moontlike uitkomste van ‘n kombinasie-voorkoming studie in adolessentete simuleer. Ons het ‘n stogastiese individu-gebaseerde model, gestratifiseermet betrekking tot seks en ouderdom, ontwikkel. Ons het toe die modelgebruik om die impak van ‘n verskeinheid van voorkomingspakette op MIV insidensieonder adolessente wat deelneem aan ‘n hipotetiese proef oor ‘n drie jaarperiode, te bepaal. Die proef wat gesimuleer word behels a intervensie groep,waarin die jong volwassenes ‘n keuse van voorbehoedings metodes (insluitendemediese manlike besnydenis (MMB), pre-blootstelling profilakse (PrBP) enanti-retrovirale vaginale mikrobisiedes (ARV-VM)) aangebied word, en ‘n kontrolegroep. Ons voorspel dat die impak van ‘n volle voorkomingspaket op MIVinsidensie ‘n 46% per persoon-jaar (PPJ) (95% VI 47–47%) risiko verminderingsal wees. Die kombinasie van MMB en PrBP het ‘n substansiele impakop MIV insidensie onder mans, met ‘n relatiewe risiko van MIV infeksie van51% PPJ (95% VI 49–53%). Om die keuse van PrBP, ‘n mikrobisiede gel of‘n mikrobisiede in die vorm van ‘n vaginale ring aan vrouens te bied, is mindereffektief, met ‘n relatiewe risiko van MIV infeksie van 57% PPJ (95% VI 56%–58%). Hierdie verskil nie substansieel van die beraamde relatiewe risikoin die geval waar slegs die vaginale ring gebied word nie, aangesien daar aanvaarword dat die ring die mees aanvaarde van die drie voorkomingsmetodes is.Ons het bepaal dat ‘n steekproef van ongeveer 1013 individue in elke arm vandie proef nodig is om ‘n 80% kans te he om ‘n statisties betekenisvolle afnamein MIV-risiko te bespeur. Ons vind dat die relatiewe risiko sensitief is tot dieaanvaarde graad van die korrelasies tussen kondoom-gebruik en die aanvaardingvan die voorkomings metodes. Ons het ook gevind dat dit mag wees datdie mees doeltreffende proef ontwerp is om beide MMB en PrBP vir mans enslegs ‘n mikrobisiede ring vir vrouens te bied. Verdere werk word benodig omdie prosesse waarby jong volwassenes keuses maak oor voorkomingsmetodes teverstaan.
Teenagers--Sexual behaviour--KwaZulu-Natal., Sex instruction for teenagers--South Africa., AIDS (Disease) in adolescence--KwaZulu-Natal., and Theses--Education.
This study sets out to examine understandings of gender and sexual risks amongstyoung Africans in the KwaMakhutha township, in KwaZulu-Natal. Young Africansbetween the ages of 16 to 17 years old were interviewed to ascertain what theyperceive to be risky sexual behaviour and why young people engage in suchactivities. The study also aimed to understand whether young people understood thenegative consequences of risky behaviour. Such insight from young peoples'perspectives is very helpful in understanding what schools can do to prevent risktaking activities especially in the context of AIDS. KwaZulu-Natal is the epicentre ofthe AIDS pandemic in South Africa and young people between the ages of 15-24 arevery vulnerable with young women facing disproportionate vulnerability. A qualitativeresearch method was used in this study and ten in-depth interviews were conductedin one of the high schools in the KwaMakutha Township, outside Durban. The studyfinds that gender inequalities is central in understanding sexual risk andconstructions of masculinity and femininity reproduce sexual and gender relations ofpower where young women remain vulnerable. Schools should take the voices ofyoung people seriously and address gender inequalities as a key area ofintervention. Thesis (M.Ed.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 2011.
Schoolgirls--Sexual behaviour--KwaZulu-Natal--Durban., Schoolgirls--KwaZulu-Natal--Durban., AIDS (Disease) in adolescence--KwaZulu-Natal., Teenagers--Diseases--KwaZulu-Natal--Durban., and Theses--Education.
This study explores the meanings that young African schoolgirls aged 16 turning 17 from a high school in Umlazi, Durban give to their sexual identities. Using qualitative research methods in the form of semi-structured open-ended interviews and focus group discussions, their understandings of sex, sexuality and sexual risk were explored. The aim was to investigate why these young girls expose themselves to risk by engaging in unprotected sex, in spite of sex education and many interventions and campaigns related to Human Immune- Deficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) infections' awareness which these girls receive in school. Poverty, unemployment and crime plague this community and it is within this context that these girls make sense of their sexual identities. The main findings of this study are that these young girls resist being placed in a subordinate position and the patriarchal system which the society and boys attempt to impose. Furthermore, most of these girls come from broken families where grandparents have a responsibility to sustain the family. In the process, girls expose themselves to sexual risk as they become vulnerable to peer pressure. Girls' response to their challenges with regards to sexual identity is to act like boys, have multiple partners, and dump the boys who demand sexual favours. In response, this study aims to enlighten the girls regarding the dangers inherent in their behaviour and to assist them with safer ways of assuming 'girl power'. Girl power implies that girls are empowered with skills to be self confidence, be confident with themselves by protecting themselves from sexual infections and to take informed decisions as they negotiate their sexualities.The findings reveal that girls reject the patriarchy that subordinates them and are now taking a position of girl power. I conclude that, in assuming their power over boys, these young girls want to behave like boys and have multiple partners which put them at risk. Thesis (M.Ed.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 2012.