The article presents a speech by Honorable Bernie Sanders United States Senator, Vermont, Independent on whether Congress should pass a resolution calling for the removal of the U.S. armed forces from Yemen. Topics discussed include the leadership of Muhammad bin Salman, the cholera outbreak, and the U.S. Congress moving to withdraw support from the war would undermine UN efforts to reach a peace agreement.
WOMEN legislators, WOMEN scholars, EMPLOYMENT portfolios, GENDER stereotypes, and INTERNATIONAL relations
Scholars find that women who run for Congress are just as likely to win as men are, yet women face considerable challenges related to their sex on the campaign trail. Women are more likely to face challengers than men are, the challengers they face are typically more qualified, and gender stereotypes paint women as less able to handle important issues like defense and foreign affairs. We examine how women succeed in the face of these obstacle, arguing that women are successful, in part, because they craft large, diverse legislative agendas that include bills on a mix of topics. These topics include district interests, women's interests, and the masculine issues on which women are disadvantaged. We believe this balancing strategy allows women to develop reputations for competence on a wide range of issues, which in turn, helps them deter electoral challengers. We test our hypotheses by analyzing a comprehensive database of all bills introduced in the U.S. House between 1963 and 2009. We find that female MCs propose more bills, spread across more issues, than do men. Further, the topics of the bills women sponsor span a range of women's issues, masculine issues, and gender-neutral topics—giving support to the idea that women balance their legislative portfolios. Finally, we examine the electoral benefits to women of this strategy by analyzing rates of challenger emergence in Congressional races. We find that women must introduce twice as much legislation as men to see the probability of challenger emergence decrease to a level that is indistinguishable from that of men. The added effort and staff hours female MCs typically devote to crafting legislation, vis-à-vis male MCs, only serves to put them on equal footing with men. It does not give them an advantage. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The article presents a view of the Conflict in Yemen and action taken by the U.S. Congress proposals to end U.S. involvement. It notes that the text of the report required by the Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act as submitted by the secretary of state pursuant to Executive Order 13818. It notes that the U.S. Congress has shown that it is carefully considering how to associate with Saudi Arabia in general in the future.
Estudios internacionales (Santiago). September 2015 47(182):37-55
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, Chile, libre comercio, Congreso de los Estados Unidos, free trade, and United States Congress
La presente investigación muestra que el proceso de aprobación en el Congreso del Tratado de Libre Comercio entre los Estados Unidos de América y Chile no se discutió ni votó de acuerdo con los lineamientos de los partidos, sino de acuerdo con las opiniones personales sobre el país norteamericano y los intereses afectados por disposiciones específicas del tratado. También revela que la continuidad del espectro izquierda-derecha, la posición en favor o en contra de la pasada dictadura de Pinochet y el punto de vista individual respecto de la posición de Chile en el Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas durante la crisis anterior a la guerra con Irak, ni las opiniones o posiciones de política de los distintos parlamentarios durante la Guerra Fría, constituyen una variable explicativa importante. En cambio, sí lo son los electores representados por cada legislador en el eje rural-urbano, además de su posición respecto de la globalización, en especial en función de su punto de vista sobre el libre mercado. Dicho esto, la presente investigación puede ser de utilidad para formarse una opinión sobre el futuro de las relaciones chileno-norteamericanas y las actitudes de la elite política hacia los Estados Unidos. Desde el punto de vista metodológico, se elaboró una base de datos que incluye los registros de votación y las declaraciones de la totalidad de los miembros de la Cámara de Diputados y del Senado, tanto en las comisiones como en el pleno. Esta incluye el partido político a que pertenecían y las opiniones expresadas en la sala, además de una muestra representativa de las declaraciones formuladas a la prensa nacional durante el período de aprobación legislativa. This research shows that the legislative ratification process of the Free Trade Agreement between the United States and Chile was not discussed and voted according to party lines but personal opinions towards the North American nation and especial interests affected by particular clauses of the treaty. It also implied that the continuum in the spectrum left-right wing, position in favour or against the past Pinochet's dictatorship and the individual position towards the position of Chile in the United Nations Security Council during the pre-Iraq war crisis do not represent a significant explanatory variable, as well as previous opinions or political positions held by individual legislators during the cold war. However, relevant and significant explanatory variables are constituted by the constituencies represented by each legislator on the rural-urban axis plus position towards globalization are more relevant, especially in terms of position towards free markets. With this, this research can enlighten about the future of the Chilean-US relations and the attitudes of the political elite towards the United States. Methodologically it is build a database that includes the voting records and statements given by all members of the Chamber of Deputies and Senate at the committee and the floor. This includes the political party and every opinion expressed in the chamber and also a representative sample of statements released to the national press during the period of legislative ratification.
INTERNATIONAL security, INTERNATIONAL relations, UNITED States -- Politics & government, and UNITED States armed forces
The article offers the insights of U.S. Senators Tom Daschle of South Dakota and Robert C. Byrd of West Virginia on whether the U.S. Congress should allow the use of U.S. military forces against Iraq as contained in the legislative debate held in the U.S. Senate on October 10, 2002. According to Senator Daschle, the threat posed by Iraq may not be imminent but it is growing and is real. Byrd cites the use of military forces to defend the national security of the U.S.
(Bloomberg) -- The House passed a bipartisan resolution rebuking President Donald Trump for withdrawing U.S. forces from Syria, a decision that cleared the path for Turkey to invade territory controlled by Kurds that were allied with the U.S. against the Islamic State. House Foreign Affairs Chairman Eliot Engel, a New York Democrat, called Trump's decision to withdraw troops "callous and impulsive" and said it "set into motion a calamitous breakdown in international security in Syria, one with long-lasting consequences for the United States and the world". [Extracted from the article]
HOUSING, INVOICES, DRUG traffic, INTERNATIONAL relations, and TEAR gas
(Bloomberg) -- The U.S. House gave support to pro-democracy protesters in Hong Kong by passing a measure that would require an annual review of whether the city is sufficiently autonomous from Beijing to justify its special trading status under U.S. law. The House plans to vote Tuesday on the Protect Hong Kong Act, H.R. 4270, which would halt the export to Hong Kong of crowd-control devices such as tear gas and rubber bullets. [Extracted from the article]
HOUSING, SANCTIONS (International law), INTERNATIONAL relations, TURKEYS, and LEGISLATORS
(Bloomberg) -- The U.S. House overwhelmingly passed a bipartisan bill Tuesday threatening to sanction Turkey, warning that a deal struck with the Trump administration won't necessarily save the NATO ally from economic punishment for its military operation in northern Syria. "President Trump has let Erdogan off scot-free", House Foreign Affairs Chairman Eliot Engel said on the House floor. [Extracted from the article]
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations.
Black Colleges, Developing Nations, Federal Aid, Foreign Countries, Foreign Policy, Hearings, Higher Education, International Relations, Politics of Education, Role of Education, Africa, Kenya, and Uganda
Testimony on federal aid to higher education in Africa is recorded in this report of a congressional hearing. Subcommittee chairman Senator Paul Simon opened by describing his hope that more U.S. aid be directed to the relatively new but now deteriorating African institutions of higher education. John Hicks, from the Bureau for Africa at the Agency for International Development, testified on early efforts to assist Kenya and Uganda, past assistance in agricultural higher education, and current activities. Fred Hayward, of the American Council on Education, testified by comparing U.S. and African higher education. Frank Morris, Dean of Graduate Study and Research at Morgan State University (Maryland), testified about using indigenous experts, policies that encourage short-term solutions, and the untapped resources of the historically black colleges and universities in the U.S. Carl Schieren of the African American Institute testified on the role of African higher education in national development and the extreme challenges that hinder their efforts. Pearl Robinson of Tufts University (Massachusetts) testified on three programs of the African Academy of Sciences. Also included are prepared statements of all the witnesses and a record of the verbal testimony and questions that followed. (JB)
Journal for Peace and Nuclear Disarmament, Vol 2, Iss 1, Pp 253-273 (2019)
Conventional arms control in Europe, CFE Treaty, Russia, United States, US Congress, NATO, Nuclear engineering. Atomic power, TK9001-9401, International relations, and JZ2-6530
The renewed conflict between Russia and NATO has brought back security concerns over nuclear and conventional deterrence and defence in Europe. Since the days of the Cold War those two elements are closely intertwined, with direct ramifications on arms control policies. This article recalls the post-Cold War history of conventional arms control in Europe. It focuses on the underexplored impact of the US legislative during the mid-to-late-1990s. Relying on open sources from US Congress, the article traces the political standstill on conventional arms control to a crucial Congressional decision in the year 1997 which ultimately tied the future of this arms control regime to the solution of two protracted conflicts in the post-Soviet space. The article challenges the mainstream view that Russia is solely to blame for the dissolution of conventional arms control and concludes that without solving the standstill, nuclear arms control for Europe will as well remain deadlocked.
ARMED Forces, INTERNATIONAL relations, and WAR (International law)
The article reports that presidents have continued to commit U.S. Armed Forces into potential hostilities, without a specific authorization from Congress at times. It notes that the U.S. military operations related to the joint counter-Houthi campaign being conducted by armed forces of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in Yemen have spurred congressional legislative action in both Houses of Congress, taken pursuant to provisions of the WPR and related legislation.
Journal of Gazi Academic View. 2018, Vol. 11 Issue 22, p291-304. 14p.
LEGISLATION and INTERNATIONAL relations
Although there has been a voluminous literature on American foreign policy and its effect on several regions, research on American domestic politics has been relatively scarce. Due to its significant impact on foreign policy formation, the Presidency received a lot of scholarly attention. This paper, on the other hand, focuses on another important actor in American foreign and domestic policy: The United States Congress. In this respect, we specifically aim to contribute to the literature on American Congress which aims to uncover the party effect on legislative behavior. Current studies on the topic usually rely on rollcall votes. Although this method has been quite popular, recent studies indicate problems in terms of measuring the true effect of the party. Hence, this study proposes an alternative method which has been widely used in the European Politics literature. The proposed methods involves using expert surveys to determine the level of party effect. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]