The cerebellum drives motor coordination and sequencing of actions at the millisecond timescale through adaptive control of cerebellar nuclear output. Cerebellar nuclei integrate high-frequency information from both the cerebellar cortex and the two main excitatory inputs of the cerebellum: the mossy fibers and the climbing fiber collaterals. However, how nuclear cells process rate and timing of inputs carried by these inputs is still debated. Here, we investigate the influence of the cerebellar cortical output, the Purkinje cells, on identified cerebellar nuclei neurons in vivo in male mice. Using transgenic mice expressing Channelrhodopsin2 specifically in Purkinje cells and tetrode recordings in the medial nucleus, we identified two main groups of neurons based on the waveform of their action potentials. These two groups of neurons coincide with glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons identified by optotagging after Chrimson expression in VGLUT2-cre and GAD-cre mice, respectively. The glutamatergic-like neurons fire at high rate and respond to both rate and timing of Purkinje cell population inputs, whereas GABAergic-like neurons only respond to the mean population firing rate of Purkinje cells at high frequencies. Moreover, synchronous activation of Purkinje cells can entrain the glutamatergic-like, but not the GABAergic-like, cells over a wide range of frequencies. Our results suggest that the downstream effect of synchronous and rhythmic Purkinje cell discharges depends on the type of cerebellar nuclei neurons targeted. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Journal of Neuroscience. 11/20/2019, Vol. 39 Issue 47, p9328-9342. 15p.
CEREBELLAR cortex, CEREBRAL cortex, ARM amputation, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN
A fundamental organizing principle in the somatosensory and motor systems is somatotopy, where specific body parts are represented separately and adjacently to other body parts, resulting in a body map. Different terminals of the sensorimotor network show varied somatotopic layouts, in which the relative position, distance, and overlap between body-part representations differ. Since somatotopy is best characterized in the primary somatosensory (SI) and motor (Ml) cortices, these terminals have been the main focus of research on somatotopic remapping following loss of sensory input (e.g., arm amputation). Cortical remapping is generally considered to be driven by the layout of the underlying somatotopy, such that neighboring body-part representations tend to activate the deprived brain region. Here, we challenge the assumption that somatotopic layout restricts remapping, by comparing patterns of remapping in humans born without one hand (hereafter, one-handers, n = 26) across multiple terminals of the sensorimotor pathway. We first report that, in the cerebellum of one-handers, the deprived hand region represents multiple body parts. Importantly, the native representations of some of these body parts do not neighbor the deprived hand region. We further replicate our previous findings, showing a similar pattern of remapping in the deprived hand region of the cerebral cortex in one-handers. Finally, we report preliminary results of a similar remapping pattern in the putamen of one-handers. Since these three sensorimotor terminals (cerebellum, cerebrum, putamen) contain different somatotopic layouts, the parallel remapping they undergo demonstrates that the mere spatial layout of body-part representations may not exclusively dictate remapping in the sensorimotor systems. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Journal of Neuroscience. 11/13/2019, Vol. 39 Issue 46, p9237-9250. 14p.
ADAPTATION (Physiology), MOTOR learning, MEMORY, PREDICTIONS, and INDIVIDUAL differences
Humans predict the sensory consequences of motor commands by learning internal models of the body and of environment perturbations. When facing a sensory prediction error, should we attribute this error to a change in our body, and update the body internal model, or to a change in the environment? In the latter case, should we update an existing perturbation model or create a new model? Here, we propose that a decision-making process compares the models' prediction errors, weighted by their precisions, to select and update either the body model or an existing perturbation model. When no model can predict a perturbation, a new perturbation model is created and selected. When a model is selected, both the prediction's mean estimate and uncertainty are updated to minimize future prediction errors and to increase the precision of the predictions. Results from computer simulations, which we verified in an arm visuomotor adaptation experiment with subjects of both sexes, account for short aftereffects and large savings after adaptation to large, but not small, perturbations. Results also clarify previous data in the absence of errors (error-clamp): motor memories show an initial lack of decay after a large perturbation, but gradual decay after a small perturbation. Finally, qualitative individual differences in adaptation were explained by subjects selecting and updating either the body model or a perturbation model. Our results suggest that motor adaptation belongs to a general class of learning according to which memories are created when no existing memories can predict sensory data accurately and precisely. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Zanin, Juan P., Verpeut, Jessica L., Ying Li, Shiflett, Michael W., Wang, Samuel S.-H., Santhakumar, Viji, and Friedman, Wilma J.
Journal of Neuroscience. 11/13/2019, Vol. 39 Issue 46, p9119-9129. 11p.
REGULATION of cell cycles, GRANULE cells, PROGENITOR cells, ADULT development, and NEUROTROPHIN receptors
Development of brain circuitry requires precise regulation and timing of proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) is highly expressed in the proliferating granule cell precursors (GCPs) during development of the cerebellum. In a previous paper, we showed that proNT3 promoted GCP cell cycle exit via p75NTR. Here we used genetically modified rats and mice of both sexes to show that p75NTR regulates the duration of the GCP cell cycle, requiring activation of RhoA. Rats and mice lacking p75NTR have dysregulated GCP proliferation, with deleterious effects on cerebellar circuit development and behavioral consequences persisting into adulthood. In the absence of p75NTR, the GCP cell cycle is accelerated, leading to delayed cell cycle exit, prolonged GCP proliferation, increased glutamatergic input to Purkinje cells, and a deficit in delay eyeblink conditioning, a cerebellum-dependent form of learning. These results demonstrate the necessity of appropriate developmental timing of the cell cycle for establishment of proper connectivity and associated behavior. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]