Naik, Gulzar , Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Rangil, Ganderbal, Jammu and Kashmir, India, Rashid, Mudasir, MH, Balkhi, and FA, Bhat
Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal, 2015. December., v.6(4), p.1-5.
Endemic, Cyprinus carpio, Schizothoracines, Food and feeding habits, and Exotic
In this paper, we studied the food and feeding habits of exotic Cyprinus carpio Var. communis. The results obtained by analysing the gut contents of common carp showed that on an average basis, detritus formed 43.5% of total food, while the remaining food (56.5%) consisted of plant (31.21%) and animal matter (25.29%). The fish was designated as detri-omnivore with bottom feeding habit. Gastroosmatic index (Ga.S.I.) recorded its highest value during July (6.28), while lowest value was recorded in February (3.34).The index remained generally high during the warmer months, followed by a gradual decline with the approach of winter. On comparing, food and feeding habits and Ga.S.I. of exotic common carp with that of endemic schizothoracines was found almost similar and there might be existing a feeding competition between them, which might be one of the cause that declined endemic schizothoracine fish production from Dal Lake of Kashmir valley.
Naik, Gulzar , Faculty of Fisheries, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Rangil, Ganderbal, Jammu and Kashmir, India, Rashid, Mudasir, and MH, Balkhi
Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal, 2015. December., v.6(4), p.1-4.
Manasbal lake, Eutrophication, Physico-chemical parameters, and Pollution
In an aquatic ecosystem, the density and diversity of organisms depend on availability and quality of water. During the present study an attempt was made to analyse some of the important physico-chemical parameters of the water samples at three different sites of the Manasbal Lake to check the pollution load. Various parameters were analysed for a period of six months from July 2010 to December 2010 on monthly intervals by following standard methods. Among the various parameters recorded the overall Air temperature ranged from 7.2°C to 30.2°C; surface water temperature ranged from 6.1°C to 26.5°C; Secchi-disc transparency from 1.5 m to 4.5 m; Conductivity varied from 149 to 292 μS cm-1; Dissolved oxygen from 2.5 to 8.8 mg L-1; Free Co2 from 0.2 to 13.4 mg L-1; pH from 8.1 to 9.2; Total Alkalinity varied from 126 to 243 mg L-1; Chloride values ranged from 5.9 to 33.5 mg L-1; Total Hardness ranged from 119 to 218 mg L-1; Ammonical Nitrogen varied from 27 to 193 μg L-1; Nitrate Nitrogen varied from 31 to 286 μg L-1; Ortho-Phosphate Phosphorous varied from 4.3 to 33.0 μg L-1 and Phosphate Phosphorous ranged from 83.0 to 261 μg L-1. Almost all the above parameters showed that the pollution load is increasing especially at littoral sites due to agricultural run-off and human settlements disposing sewage, besides anthropogenic stresses in the catchment area. The pH of water of this lake was higher due to calcium intrusion from Kondabal area. Hence, the present study urges the need for immediate remedial measures for protection and conservation of this lake in order to save it from further deterioration.
Malnutrition, Ascites, Nausea, Liver cirrhosis, Encephalopathy, and Jaundice
Malnutrition is prevalent in all forms of liver diseases. Protein calorie malnutrition (PCM) is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality in patients with cirrhosis and occurs in 50% -90% of these patients. Although the pathogenesis of PCM is multifactorial, alterations in protein metabolism plays an important role. This article is based on a selective literature review of protein calorie malnutrition in liver cirrhosis. Malnutrition is prevalent in liver cirrhosis due to the presence of ascites, nausea, vomiting, insufficient food intake, malabsorption and metabolic disorders, poor dietary intake, malabsorption, increased intestinal protein losses, low protein synthesis, and hyper metabolism.
Probiotics, Cirrhosis, Triglycerides, Liver, and Nutrition
Poor nutritional status is related to worse prognosis and increases the mortality rates in liver cirrhosis. Malnutrition is usual in patients and is associated with a poor outcome. Nutritional support decreases nutritionassociated complications. The dietary intake of patients is generally characterized by high levels of carbohydrate, fat, protein and cholesterol. Therefore, careful investigation of dietary habits could lead to better nutrition therapy in liver cirrhotic patients. The liver cirrhotic patients are malnourished due to presence of anorexia, vomiting and other gastrointestinal disorders. Hence, nutritional support is also required during therapy to prevent undernourishment, treatment interruption, and improve the quality of life. Some patients with liver cirrhosis have decreased dietary energy and protein intake, while the number of liver cirrhotic patients with overeating and obesity is increasing, indicating that the nutritional state of liver cirrhotic patients has a broad spectrum. Therefore, nutrition therapy for liver cirrhotic patients should be planned on an assessment of their complications, nutritional state, and dietary intake. Late evening snacks, branched-chain amino acids, zinc, vitamin and mineral supplementation, medium chain triglycerides, vegetable protein and probiotics are considered for effective nutritional utilization
Bhatti R, Singh J, Saxena AK, Suri N, and Ishar MP
Indian Journal Of Pharmaceutical Sciences [Indian J Pharm Sci] 2013 Nov; Vol. 75 (6), pp. 628-34.
Therapeutic management of cancer is a great clinical challenge and alternative medicines are being extensively explored to have integrated approach to cure cancer. Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) is known for its hypoglycaemic, radioprotective, antidiarrhoeal and many other pharmacological activities. The present study is designed to carryout pharmacognostic standardisation and evaluation of antiproliferative activity of the leaf extracts Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) and the chromatographic fractions of the most active extract. Hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol extracts of the shade dried leaves were prepared by soxhelation and antiproliferative activity was assessed using human cancer cell lines of lung (A-549), colon (CoLo-05), ovary (IGR-OV-1), prostrate (PC3), leukaemia (THP-1) and breast (MCF-7) cancer. Bioactivity-derived fractionation was carried out for most active extract by column chromatography. The phytochemical studies indicated alkaloids, anthraquinones, terpenoids in the alcohol, chloroform extracts and tannins, terpenoids, reducing sugars in the petroleum ether and hexane extracts. Ethanol extract showed maximum inhibition in colon and breast carcinoma cell lines at a dose of 100 μg/ml. Column chromatography of the ethanol extract yielded five fractions. Out of this, fractions 2, 4 and 5 showed significant inhibition in leukaemia cell line with IC50 of 12.5, 86.2 and >100 μg/ml for fractions 2, 4 and 5, respectively. High-performance thin layer chromatography of the fraction 2 revealed imperatorin as one of the major phytoconstituents. Among the different extracts investigated, ethanol extract exhibited significant antiproliferative activity and its fraction 2 containing furanocoumarin imperatorin showed antiproliferative activity against leukaemia cell line with IC50 of 12.5 μg/ml.