Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift [Wien Klin Wochenschr] 2007; Vol. 119 (9-10), pp. 276-81.
Aged, Bible, Diagnosis-Related Groups economics, Health Services Accessibility, Humans, Quality of Health Care, Religion and Medicine, Virtues, Altruism, Delivery of Health Care economics, Delivery of Health Care standards, Ethics, Medical, Helping Behavior, and Social Values
Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift [Wien Klin Wochenschr] 2002 Oct 31; Vol. 114 (19-20), pp. 822-32.
Bible, Christianity history, Consciousness, History, 15th Century, History, 16th Century, History, 17th Century, History, 18th Century, History, 19th Century, History, 20th Century, History, Ancient, History, Medieval, Humans, Philosophy history, Psychology history, Awareness, Life, and Metaphysics history
This paper seeks to convey an insight into the interrelationships between body, soul and mind and to show how the concept of "soul" has evolved through the course of history. In German the word "soul" has a confusing array of meanings today. For most of us it comprises all of man's emotions, his awareness, constructive thought, drive, state of mind and spirit. The soul thus represents the essence of a person and his relationships to those closest to him. For many people the soul was and still is the principle of life, the breath of life and the force of life. The immortal soul escapes, leaves the body, is weighed and judged. At all times in history man has doggedly pursued the mysteries of self-awareness, the ultimate truth and the soul. What he found varied, depending on the age and the place. What the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament express in deep-seated metaphors, the Greek philosophers put into clear-cut words: their concept of soul was then largely integrated into Christian thought. Meister Eckhart describes the soul in mystically transfigured passion. C.G. Jung writes of the "animus and anima." Sigmund Freud uses the term "psyche." Radical materialism denies the existence and independence of the soul's processes. The questions where we come from and where we are going, why and what for, no longer find a common answer. Psychiatry, however, takes up the intellectual call of the time and replies to the challenges of the day. Thus, the search for the "soul", a search that occupies so many people, also always involves the search for the whole person.
Literature, Littérature, Histoire et sciences des religions, History and sciences of religions, Exégèse biblique et critique biblique, Exegesis and biblical criticism, Ancien Testament, Old testament, Livres poétiques et sapientiaux, Poetical and wisdom books, Job, Akeda, Akedah, Ancien Testament, Old Testament, Bible, Jacob, Job (Livre), Job (book), Joseph, Littérature rabbinique, Rabbinic literature, Intertextualité, and Mann (T.)
Tbe Book of Job from the Old Testament is juxtaposed in detail with its hypertext in Thomas Mann's novel: the chapter where Jacob mourns for his dead Joseph. An argument is made that Mann's awareness of rabbinical literature creates a connection with the Akedah tradition, i.e., different ways of dealing with the sacrifice of Isaac by Abraham in Genesis. The notion that Abraham actually does kill Isaac, as suggested by a medieval rabbinical text, is interwoven into the analysis of Jacob's mourning for Joseph who appears as an Issaac-like sacrificial victim in Mann's novel. A connection is established between Abraham, Job and Jacob as figures whose children are claimed by God, and their reactions to this test are compared.