Levy, Brian L., Owens, Ann, and Sampson, Robert J.
Sociology of Education, v92 n3 p269-292 Jul 2019. 24 pp.
Neighborhoods, Environmental Influences, Disadvantaged, Bachelors Degrees, Educational Attainment, Urban Areas, Racial Differences, Ethnicity, Parent Attitudes, Expectation, Interpersonal Relationship, Violence, Adolescents, African American Students, Hispanic American Students, White Students, Effect Size, Socioeconomic Status, Immigrants, and Illinois (Chicago)
This study estimates the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on bachelor's degree attainment with data from a long-term follow-up of the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. We focus on heterogeneous effects by race and class as well as individual and neighborhood mechanisms that might explain observed patterns, including parents' educational expectations, collective efficacy, social relationships, and neighborhood violence. Using newly developed methods for estimating longitudinal treatment effects, we find that cumulative neighborhood disadvantage in adolescence is strongly associated with lower bachelor's attainment among high-income blacks and Latinos. We find no effect for whites and at most a modest effect among low- and middle-income blacks/Latinos. A sensitivity analysis suggests that the estimated effect for high-income blacks/Latinos is plausibly causal. These results support an advantage-leveling model of neighborhood effects and add important nuance for research considering how and for whom neighborhoods influence life chances.
Sociology of Education, v92 n1 p1-20 Jan 2019. 20 pp.
Hispanic American Students, African American Students, Engineering Education, College Students, Racial Composition, College Environment, Whites, Cultural Influences, Student Experience, Racial Segregation, Peer Relationship, Student Adjustment, High Schools, Social Capital, Equal Education, Social Class, Student Attitudes, and Racial Bias
Drawing on interviews with 38 black and Latino/a engineering students at a predominantly white, elite university, I use a cultural analytic framework to explicate the role of pre-college integration in the heterogeneous psychosocial and academic experiences of students of color on predominantly white campuses. I identify three cultural strategies students of color adopt to navigate the university's ethnoracially segregated peer network landscape and more specifically, engage majority-white academic peer networks: integration, marginalized segregation, and social adaptation. Integrators, who hail from predominantly white high schools, engage majority-white academic networks with ease, do not experience ethnoracial marginalization, and form predominantly white networks in college. Marginalized segregators, who come from predominantly black, Latino/a, or mixed high schools, exhibit discomfort engaging majority-white academic networks, experience ethnoracial marginalization, and form predominantly same-race or co-ethnic networks in college. Finally, social adapters, who come from high schools with varying ethnoracial compositions, manage their experiences with ethnoracial marginalization to engage majority-white academic networks with ease, and the ethnoracial composition of their college networks varies. The findings extend previous scholarship on the experiences of black and Latino/a students on predominantly white campuses and uncover the cultural processes that contribute to the reproduction of inequality among students of color.
Sociology of Education, v88 n4 p302-319 Oct 2015. 18 pp.
Hispanic American Students, Student Organizations, Activism, Politics of Education, Ethnography, Field Studies, Comparative Analysis, College Students, Liberal Arts, Research Universities, Public Colleges, School Culture, Political Attitudes, Ethnicity, Institutional Characteristics, Inclusion, Diversity (Institutional), Ethnic Diversity, Student Diversity, Observation, Interviews, and California
To comply with ideals of multiculturalism and diversity, postsecondary institutions incorporate Latino students into distinct campus cultures. These cultures influence how students interact with one another, the university community at large, and communities outside of campus, ultimately shaping how students inhabit Latino politics. Drawing on data from 20 months of ethnographic fieldwork with six student organizations and 60 in-depth interviews, I compare Latino student organizations in a liberal arts college, a research university, and a regional public university. Building on inhabited institutional theory, I identify dimensions of campus cultures that work in interaction with students to produce three divergent forms of ethnic political expression: deliberative, divisive, and contentious. Inhabited institutionalism helps explain why Latino politics takes distinct forms in specific academic contexts and suggests that strong collegiate incorporation may paradoxically serve to suppress Latino student engagement in political activism outside the campus gates.
Stearns, Elizabeth, Buchmann, Claudia, and Bonneau, Kara
Sociology of Education, v82 n2 p173-195 Apr 2009. 23 pp.
Neighborhoods, Extracurricular Activities, Racial Segregation, Racial Composition, Friendship, Young Adults, Environmental Influences, Racial Relations, Racial Factors, College Students, Social Networks, Educational Environment, African American Students, Hispanic American Students, White Students, Asian American Students, Adolescents, Dormitories, Fraternities, and Sororities
Because of segregation in neighborhoods and schools, college may provide the first opportunity for many young adults to interact closely with members of different racial and ethnic groups. Little research has examined how interracial friendships form during this period. This article investigates changes in the racial composition of friendship networks in the transition from high school to college and how aspects of the college environment are related to such changes. Interracial friendships increase for whites, decrease for blacks, and show little change for Latinos and Asians. The habits of friendship formation that are acquired during adolescence and features of residential and extracurricular college contexts influence the formation of interracial friendships. The race of one's roommate, the degree of interracial contact in residence halls, and participation in various types of extracurricular activities are most strongly related to the formation of interracial friendships. (Contains 6 tables and 9 notes.)
Sociology of Education, v78 n4 p294 Oct 2005. 22 pp.
Minority Groups, Credentials, Graduation Rate, Colleges, Selective Admission, Graduate Surveys, Hypothesis Testing, African American Students, Hispanic American Students, White Students, and Asian American Students
This article evaluates the "mismatch" hypothesis, advocated by opponents of affirmative action, which predicts lower graduation rates for minority students who attend selective post-secondary institutions than for those who attend colleges and universities where their academic credentials are better matched to the institutional average. Using two nationally representative longitudinal surveys and a unique survey of students who were enrolled at selective and highly selective institutions, the authors tested the mismatch hypothesis by implementing a robust methodology that jointly considered enrollment in and graduation from selective institutions as interrelated outcomes. The findings do not support the "mismatch" hypothesis for black and Hispanic (as well as white and Asian) students who attended college during the 1980s and early 1990s.
Asian American Students, Black Students, Educational Research, Enrollment, Higher Education, Hispanic American Students, Minority Groups, Public Schools, School Segregation, Suburban Schools, and Suburbs
Examines the relationship between school segregation and minority suburbanization on enrollments during the years 1987-1995. Uses data from the school-level enrollment counts from the Common Core of Data (CCD) sets. Reports that increased suburban segregation corresponds to the increase in suburban enrollment shares in black, Hispanic, and Asian students. (CMK)