Sociology of Education, v91 n2 p132-158 Apr 2018. 27 pp.
Educational Opportunities, Equal Education, Low Income Students, Minority Group Students, Teacher Effectiveness, Elementary School Teachers, Public Schools, Value Added Models, Educational Benefits, Racial Differences, Achievement Gap, Low Achievement, African American Students, Hispanic American Students, White Students, Socioeconomic Background, Observation, Statistical Analysis, and North Carolina
Are equal educational opportunities sufficient to narrow long-standing economic and racial inequalities in achievement? In this article, I test the hypothesis that poor and minority students benefit less from effective elementary school teachers than do their nonpoor and white peers, thus exacerbating inequalities. I use administrative data from public elementary schools in North Carolina to calculate value-added measures of teachers' success in promoting learning, and I assess benefits for different students. Results suggest that differential benefits of effective teachers uniquely exacerbate black-white inequalities but do not contribute to economic achievement gaps. Racial differences are small, on average, relative to the benefits for all groups; are not explained by differences in prior achievement; and are largest for low-achieving students. Teacher-related learning opportunities are crucial for all students, but these results point to a disconnect between typical school learning opportunities and low-achieving minority students.
Sociology of Education, v92 n1 p1-20 Jan 2019. 20 pp.
Hispanic American Students, African American Students, Engineering Education, College Students, Racial Composition, College Environment, Whites, Cultural Influences, Student Experience, Racial Segregation, Peer Relationship, Student Adjustment, High Schools, Social Capital, Equal Education, Social Class, Student Attitudes, and Racial Bias
Drawing on interviews with 38 black and Latino/a engineering students at a predominantly white, elite university, I use a cultural analytic framework to explicate the role of pre-college integration in the heterogeneous psychosocial and academic experiences of students of color on predominantly white campuses. I identify three cultural strategies students of color adopt to navigate the university's ethnoracially segregated peer network landscape and more specifically, engage majority-white academic peer networks: integration, marginalized segregation, and social adaptation. Integrators, who hail from predominantly white high schools, engage majority-white academic networks with ease, do not experience ethnoracial marginalization, and form predominantly white networks in college. Marginalized segregators, who come from predominantly black, Latino/a, or mixed high schools, exhibit discomfort engaging majority-white academic networks, experience ethnoracial marginalization, and form predominantly same-race or co-ethnic networks in college. Finally, social adapters, who come from high schools with varying ethnoracial compositions, manage their experiences with ethnoracial marginalization to engage majority-white academic networks with ease, and the ethnoracial composition of their college networks varies. The findings extend previous scholarship on the experiences of black and Latino/a students on predominantly white campuses and uncover the cultural processes that contribute to the reproduction of inequality among students of color.
Sociology of Education, v90 n2 p127-148 Apr 2017. 22 pp.
Gender Differences, Racial Differences, Gender Bias, Racial Bias, Discipline, Equal Education, Student Characteristics, African American Students, White Students, Referral, Behavior Problems, Dress Codes, Aggression, Student Behavior, Social Bias, State Surveys, Middle School Students, High School Students, Socioeconomic Status, Hispanic American Students, Asian American Students, Statistical Analysis, Disproportionate Representation, and Kentucky
School disciplinary processes are an important mechanism of inequality in education. Most prior research in this area focuses on the significantly higher rates of punishment among African American boys, but in this article, we turn our attention to the discipline of African American girls. Using advanced multilevel models and a longitudinal data set of detailed school discipline records, we analyze interactions between race and gender on office referrals. The results show troubling and significant disparities in the punishment of African American girls. Controlling for background variables, black girls are three times more likely than white girls to receive an office referral; this difference is substantially wider than the gap between black boys and white boys. Moreover, black girls receive disproportionate referrals for infractions such as disruptive behavior, dress code violations, disobedience, and aggressive behavior. We argue that these infractions are subjective and influenced by gendered interpretations. Using the framework of intersectionality, we propose that school discipline penalizes African American girls for behaviors perceived to transgress normative standards of femininity.
Sociology of Education, v83 n3 p248-270 Jul 2010. 23 pp.
Academic Achievement, Calculus, Low Income Groups, Racial Differences, Course Selection (Students), Mathematics Instruction, African American Students, Hispanic American Students, High School Students, Equal Education, Achievement Gap, Longitudinal Studies, Socioeconomic Status, Family Influence, Institutional Characteristics, School Segregation, White Students, Social Class, Advanced Courses, Grade Point Average, Educational Attainment, Parents, Gender Differences, Immigrants, and Family Income
Despite increases in the representation of African American and Hispanic youth in advanced math courses in high school over the past two decades, recent national reports indicate that substantial inequality in achievement remains. These inequalities can temper one's optimism about the degree to which the United States has made real progress toward educational equity. Using data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS), the authors find that the math achievement gap is most pronounced among those students who take the most demanding high school math classes, such as precalculus and calculus. The authors explore the roles of family socioeconomic status and school composition in explaining this pattern. Findings suggest that among those students reaching the advanced math high school stratum, Hispanic youth from low-income families and African American youth from segregated schools fare the worst in terms of closing the achievement gap with their white peers. The authors discuss potential explanations for the achievement differences observed and stress the need for more research that focuses explicitly on the factors that inhibit minority/majority parity at the top of the secondary curricular structure. (Contains 2 figures, 3 tables, and 14 notes.)