Hanselman, Paul, Bruch, Sarah K., Gamoran, Adam, and Borman, Geoffrey D.
Sociology of Education, v87 n2 p106-124 Apr 2014. 19 pp.
Self Concept, Academic Achievement, Achievement Gap, Ethnicity, Middle School Students, Racial Differences, Grades (Scholastic), African American Students, Hispanic American Students, Standardized Tests, Educational Environment, Stereotypes, Racial Composition, Student Characteristics, Writing Exercises, Language Arts, Intervention, Disadvantaged, Experimental Groups, Prediction, Statistical Analysis, Grade 7, Regression (Statistics), and Wisconsin
Schools with very few and relatively low-performing marginalized students may be most likely to trigger social identity threats (including stereotype threats) that contribute to racial disparities. We test this hypothesis by assessing variation in the benefits of a self-affirmation intervention designed to counteract social identity threat in a randomized trial in all 11 middle schools in Madison, Wisconsin. We find that school context moderates the benefits of self-affirmation for black and Hispanic students' grades, with partial support among standardized achievement outcomes. Self-affirmation reduced the very large racial achievement gap in overall grade point average by 12.5 percent in high-threat school contexts and had no effect in low-threat contexts. These self-affirmation activities have the potential to help close some of the largest racial/ethnic achievement gaps, though only in specific school contexts.
Sociology of Education, v86 n1 p83-102 Jan 2013. 20 pp.
Racial Discrimination, Racial Bias, Racial Factors, High School Students, Secondary School Teachers, Administrators, Attitude Measures, Cultural Influences, Racial Relations, Educational Environment, Public Schools, African American Students, White Students, Hispanic American Students, Special Education, At Risk Students, College Bound Students, Honors Curriculum, and North Carolina
This article uses data drawn from nine months of fieldwork and student, teacher, and administrator interviews at a southern high school to analyze school racial conflict and the construction of racism. We find that institutional inequalities that stratify students by race and class are routinely ignored by school actors who, we argue, use the presence of so-called redneck students to plausibly deny racism while furthering the standard definition of racism as blatant prejudice and an individual trait. The historical prominence of rednecks as a southern cultural identity augments these claims, leading to an implicit division of school actors into friendly/nonracist and unfriendly/racist and allowing school actors to set boundaries on the meaning of racism. Yet these rhetorical practices and the institutional structures they mask contributed to racial tensions, culminating in a race riot during our time at the school. (Contains 2 tables and 16 notes.)
Stearns, Elizabeth, Buchmann, Claudia, and Bonneau, Kara
Sociology of Education, v82 n2 p173-195 Apr 2009. 23 pp.
Neighborhoods, Extracurricular Activities, Racial Segregation, Racial Composition, Friendship, Young Adults, Environmental Influences, Racial Relations, Racial Factors, College Students, Social Networks, Educational Environment, African American Students, Hispanic American Students, White Students, Asian American Students, Adolescents, Dormitories, Fraternities, and Sororities
Because of segregation in neighborhoods and schools, college may provide the first opportunity for many young adults to interact closely with members of different racial and ethnic groups. Little research has examined how interracial friendships form during this period. This article investigates changes in the racial composition of friendship networks in the transition from high school to college and how aspects of the college environment are related to such changes. Interracial friendships increase for whites, decrease for blacks, and show little change for Latinos and Asians. The habits of friendship formation that are acquired during adolescence and features of residential and extracurricular college contexts influence the formation of interracial friendships. The race of one's roommate, the degree of interracial contact in residence halls, and participation in various types of extracurricular activities are most strongly related to the formation of interracial friendships. (Contains 6 tables and 9 notes.)