Sociology of Education, v91 n2 p91-110 Apr 2018. 20 pp.
Hispanic American Students, Discipline Policy, Discipline, School Demography, Public Schools, Crime, Economically Disadvantaged, Punishment, Elementary Secondary Education, Statistical Analysis, National Surveys, and Regression (Statistics)
Using a nationally representative sample of approximately 3,500 public schools, this study builds on and extends our knowledge of how ''minority threat'' manifests within schools. We test whether various disciplinary policies and practices are mobilized in accordance with Latino/a student composition, presumably the result of a group response to perceptions that white racial dominance is jeopardized. We gauge how schools' Latino/a student populations are associated with the availability and use of several specific types of discipline. We further explore possible moderating influences of school crime and economic disadvantage on punishment. We find that schools with larger percentages of Latino/a students are more likely to favor certain punitive responses and less likely to favor certain mild responses, as predicted by minority threat. The percentage of Latino/a students is also related to greater use of certain disciplinary responses in schools with less crime.
Sociology of Education, v90 n2 p127-148 Apr 2017. 22 pp.
Gender Differences, Racial Differences, Gender Bias, Racial Bias, Discipline, Equal Education, Student Characteristics, African American Students, White Students, Referral, Behavior Problems, Dress Codes, Aggression, Student Behavior, Social Bias, State Surveys, Middle School Students, High School Students, Socioeconomic Status, Hispanic American Students, Asian American Students, Statistical Analysis, Disproportionate Representation, and Kentucky
School disciplinary processes are an important mechanism of inequality in education. Most prior research in this area focuses on the significantly higher rates of punishment among African American boys, but in this article, we turn our attention to the discipline of African American girls. Using advanced multilevel models and a longitudinal data set of detailed school discipline records, we analyze interactions between race and gender on office referrals. The results show troubling and significant disparities in the punishment of African American girls. Controlling for background variables, black girls are three times more likely than white girls to receive an office referral; this difference is substantially wider than the gap between black boys and white boys. Moreover, black girls receive disproportionate referrals for infractions such as disruptive behavior, dress code violations, disobedience, and aggressive behavior. We argue that these infractions are subjective and influenced by gendered interpretations. Using the framework of intersectionality, we propose that school discipline penalizes African American girls for behaviors perceived to transgress normative standards of femininity.