HISTORY of Jerusalem, FRANCE -- Foreign relations, GREAT powers (International relations), JERUSALEM in Christianity, CHURCH & international relations, PALESTINE -- Foreign relations, NINETEENTH century, and HISTORY
Historians have speculated over the existence of an 1841 plan by the French foreign minister François Guizot to internationalize Jerusalem as a Christian city, a plan holding major implications for the eventual emergence of a Jewish state and for European–Ottoman relations. This article aims, based on fresh archival and other sources, to provide a definitive evaluation of Guizot's plan, its scope, and its motivations. It broadens the field to encompass other great power plans mooted in 1841, including plans of a Protestant yet Zionist flavour, and it reassesses the political weight of early nineteenth-century European religious impulses with regard to Palestine. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
CHARACTER, KINGS & rulers of Turkey, FRANCE -- Foreign relations -- Turkey, SULTANS -- Turkey, PRINCES, ROYAL houses -- History, and HISTORY
Selim III ruled the Ottoman Empire in the Age of Revolutions, but his rule did not reflect the vigorous, expansionist and aggressive spirit of this age. He more resembled a ruler forced to defend his empire from the turbulence of the age, an effort which also shaped his character and perception of rulership. During his years in royal confinement, he clung passionately to the revival of the warrior-sultan through charismatic leadership. While on the throne, there was a gradual transformation of his perception of rulership and he became satisfied with being the bureaucratic ruler of the empire. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
CRIMEAN War, 1853-1856, KINGS & rulers -- History, CRIMEAN Tatars, CRIMEA (Ukraine) -- Politics & government, HISTORY of political autonomy, INTERNATIONAL relations -- History, TURKEY -- Foreign relations, FRANCE -- Foreign relations -- 19th century, RUSSIA -- Foreign relations -- 1801-1917, GREAT Britain -- Foreign relations -- 19th century, NINETEENTH century, and HISTORY
The article discusses the history the Crimean War with a particular focus on the allegiance of the Crimean Tartar khans, or rulers, to the Allied Powers of the Ottoman Empire, Great Britain and France against Russia during the war. The article also discusses the issue of independence for Crimea debated by the Allied Powers during the war, including their fear that if Crimea gained autonomy, Russia would regain it. An overview of the British home secretary Lord Henry John Temple Palmerston, including his hope that the Crimean War would weaken Russia's power in its frontier regions, is provided.
INTERNATIONAL relations, CENTRAL Asia -- Foreign relations, and FRANCE -- Foreign relations
Compares the relationship of Central Asian states with the Russian Federation and Francophone Africa with France. Resistance to independence; Consideration of Central Asia and Francophone as artificial creations; Factors impending the nation building of Central Asia; Effect of world trade on Francophone efforts to establish regional structures.
PALESTINIAN history, PALESTINE -- Politics & government -- 1948-, PALESTINE -- Foreign relations, FRANCE -- Foreign relations -- 1945-, and DECLARATION of Independence, Israel, 1948
Based on documents recently discovered in French archives, the article sheds new light on the role of France, especially of its Foreign Minister Georges Bidault, in providing arms and ammunition to the Etzel - the pre-state underground Zionist movement in Israel. The ship Altalena, which was sunk by the newly-formed Israel Defence Forces in the midst of the 1948 War of Independence, remains a centre of historiographical and political controversy in Israel. France's role in this affair is examined in the wider context of its clandestine intelligence, military and diplomatic assistance to Israel, as well as its rivalry with Britain in the Middle East. The article argues that Bidault's decision was intended to undermine Britain's secret support during the war in Palestine for King Abdallah of Jordan's occupation of Jerusalem. Documents, including a report of a committee of inquiry of the French Ministry of Defence into the Altalena affair, are annexed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
WORLD War II, FRANCE -- Foreign relations, SYRIA -- Foreign relations, and LEBANON -- Foreign relations
The article presents the first part of a series article on the role of Charles de Gaulle, the leader of the Free French movement during the World War II in the crises in Syria and Lebanon during the war. According to the author, de Gaulle blames the British government for the crisis over his visit to the Levant. It is said that de Gaulle intentionally instigated crises in Syria and Lebanon after learning the plans of Great Britain and U.S. for a cross-channel invasion of France.