Pediatrics, Pédiatrie, Psychology, psychopathology, psychiatry, Psychologie, psychopathologie, psychiatrie, Sciences biologiques et medicales, Biological and medical sciences, Sciences medicales, Medical sciences, Pathologie infectieuse, Infectious diseases, Généralités, General aspects, Epidémiologie générale. Vaccinations, Epidemiology. Vaccinations, Facteur sociodémographique, Sociodemographic factor, Factor sociodemográfico, Homme, Human, Hombre, Infection, Infección, Adolescent, Adolescente, Afro Américain, African American, Afroamericano, Ethnie, Ethnic group, Etnia, Facteur risque, Risk factor, Factor riesgo, Femelle, Female, Hembra, Maladie sexuellement transmissible, Sexually transmitted disease, Enfermedad de transmisión sexual, Statut socioéconomique, Socioeconomic status, Estatuto socioeconómico, Stress, Estrés, Adolescents, African-American, Females, SES, and STIs
Purpose: Virtually no studies have examined the potential role that chronic stress, particularly the stress associated with socioeconomic status (SES) strain, may play on sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk. This study examined the association between SES-related risk at baseline to STI acquisition and reinfection over 36 months of follow-up. Methods: Six hundred twenty-seven African-American female adolescents, ages 14―20 years, recruited from sexual health clinics in Atlanta, GA, participated in a randomized controlled HIV prevention trial and returned for at least one follow-up assessment. Following baseline assessment, six waves of data collection occurred prospectively over 36 months. Chronic SES-related risk was assessed as a sum of yes-no exposure to seven risk indicators. Laboratory-confirmed tests for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were performed at each follow-up. Results: In multivariable regression analysis, SES-related risk significantly predicted STI acquisition over 36 months (adjusted odds ratio = 1.22) and STI reinfection (adjusted odds ratio = 1.16) above and beyond other known correlates of STI. Conclusions: Findings demonstrate that SES-related risk was predictive of both STI acquisition and reinfection among young African-American females. They are consistent with propositions that some health disparities observed in adulthood may be linked to earlier chronically stress-inducing life experiences, particularly experiences associated with low SES conditions. Although various explanations exist for the observed connection between SES-related risk and subsequent STI acquisition and/or reinfection across 36 months of follow-up, these findings highlight the need for further research to elucidate the exact pathway(s) by which SES-related risk influences later STI acquisition to refine STI prevention interventions for this population.