Euler's identity equates the number of partitions of any non-negative integer n into odd parts and the number of partitions of n into distinct parts. Beck conjectured and Andrews proved the following companion to Euler's identity: the excess of the number of parts in all partitions of n into odd parts over the number of parts in all partitions of n into distinct parts equals the number of partitions of n with exactly one even part (possibly repeated). Beck's original conjecture was followed by generalizations and so-called "Beck-type" companions to other identities. In this paper, we establish a collection of Beck-type companion identities to the following result mentioned by Lehmer at the 1974 International Congress of Mathematicians: the excess of the number of partitions of n with an even number of even parts over the number of partitions of n with an odd number of even parts equals the number of partitions of n into distinct, odd parts. We also establish various generalizations of Lehmer's identity, and prove related Beck-type companion identities. We use both analytic and combinatorial methods in our proofs. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Barlek, Mark H., Rouan, Jessica R., Wyatt, Thomas G., Helenowski, Irene, and Kibbe, Melina R.
Journal of Surgical Research. Oct2022, Vol. 278, p364-374. 11p.
SEXISM, MEDICAL research, CLINICAL trials, HEALTH equity, and MEDICAL specialties & specialists
Sex bias is present in clinical research resulting in disparities in the treatment of women. Our objective was to identify the prevalence of sex inclusiveness of participants in human clinical trials after the passage of National Institutes of Health (NIH) and United States Congress policies in 2015 and 2016 to increase female enrollment in clinical research. We performed an observational analysis of data from registered clinical trials published in three high-impact biomedical journals from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2019. One thousand four hundred and forty two manuscripts with 4,765,783 human subjects were included for analysis. Significantly more males (56%) than females (44%) were included in all three journals (P < 0.0001). Sex matching ≥ 80% was found in 24.6% of publications. Industry funded 43.7% of all studies enrolling significantly more males than females (60.8% versus 39.2%, P < 0.0001). NIH funded 10.2% of studies enrolling significantly more females than males (52.7% versus 47.3%, P < 0.0001). North America and Europe contributed 82.6% of the studies with each enrolling significantly more males than females (P < 0.0001). The United States was the country contributing the most studies (36.1%), enrolling significantly more males than females (55.5% versus 45.5%, P < 0.0001). Cardiovascular disease was the subject area of the most manuscripts among medical specialties (19%), enrolling significantly more males than females (64.9% versus 35.1%, P < 0.0001). Studies analyzed by clinical trial phase, type, trial, and allocation enrolled significantly more males than females (P < 0.0001). Sex bias remains prevalent in human clinical research trials. Improvements have been made in NIH-funded clinical trials; however, this constitutes a small percentage of overall studies. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
FeCrCoNiCu high entropy alloy (HEA) was produced through mechanical alloying (MA) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) processes. Using X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and shear punch testing, the structural, microstructural, and mechanical properties of the milled and SPSed samples were evaluated. After 50 h of milling, a dual-phase solid solution HEA formed consisting of a major FCC phase and a minor BCC phase. Increasing milling time and repeated deformation of the powders led to increased strain and dislocation density, and eventually, an alloy with a uniform distribution of particles with reduced size was achieved. Sintering of the alloy at 750 °C resulted in the annihilation of the BCC phase and the formation of a sigma phase. Moreover, segregation of the elements due to the different mixing enthalpies led to the formation of a new FCC phase. Results revealed that the SPSed alloy that was properly sintered had a porosity of less than 8%, which resulted in good final mechanical properties such as ultimate shear strength of 300 MPa and ultimate tensile strength of 540 MPa. • 50 h milling of FeCrCoNiCu, led to formation of a dual-phase HEA (FCC + BCC). • Increasing milling time led to increased strain and dislocation density. • A new FCC phase formed during sintering due to the segregation of the elements. • The sintered alloy revealed 300 MPa τ USS and 540 MPa σ UTS with 8% porosity. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Journal of Chinese Political Science. Sep2022, Vol. 27 Issue 3, p543-565. 23p.
The Sino-U.S. relations tumbled during the Trump Administration. The talk of decoupling permeated the decision-making circle in Washington D.C. Many factors have contributed to the free fall. The roles Congress has played are undoubtedly one of them. Based on the new institutionalist approach, this study provides three analyses of recent China-related legislative activities. First, the historical analysis of legislative data illustrates a surge in congressional activism on China-related legislative activities. Second, the content analysis reveals some of the triggers in the deterioration of bilateral relations in recent years. Third, the political analysis of the critical congressional players and the structures and procedures Congress created provides some insight into the domestic and political logic of the congressional crusade against China. Finally, the paper ends with assessing the impact of the surge in Congressional activism on the new Biden Administration. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is one of nine polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases and is characterized as an adult late-onset, progressive, dominantly inherited genetic disease. SCA1 is caused by an increase in the number of CAG repeats in the ATXN1 gene leading to an expanded polyQ tract in the ATAXIN-1 protein. ATAXIN-1 is broadly expressed throughout the brain. However, until recently, SCA1 research has primarily centered on the cerebellum, given the characteristic cerebellar Purkinje cell loss observed in patients, as well as the progressive motor deficits, including gait and limb incoordination, that SCA1 patients present with. There are, however, also other symptoms such as respiratory problems, cognitive defects and memory impairment, anxiety, and depression observed in SCA1 patients and mouse models, which indicate that there are extra-cerebellar effects of SCA1 that cannot be explained solely through changes in the cerebellar region of the brain alone. The existing gap between human and mouse model studies of extra-cerebellar regions in SCA1 makes it difficult to answer many important questions in the field. This review will cover both the cerebellar and extra-cerebellar effects of SCA1 and highlight the need for further investigations into the impact of mutant ATXN1 expression in these regions. This review will also discuss implications of extra-cerebellar effects not only for SCA1 but other neurodegenerative diseases showing diverse pathology as well. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Synapse formation is locally determined by transmembrane proteins, yet synaptic material is synthesized remotely and undergoes processive transport in axons. How local synaptogenic signals intercept synaptic cargo in transport to promote its delivery and synapse formation is unknown. We found that the control of synaptic cargo delivery at microtubule (MT) minus ends mediates pro- and anti-synaptogenic activities of presynaptic neurexin and frizzled in C. elegans and identified the atypical kinesin VAB-8/KIF26 as a key molecule in this process. VAB-8/KIF26 levels at synaptic MT minus ends are controlled by frizzled and neurexin; loss of VAB-8 mimics neurexin mutants or frizzled hyperactivation, and its overexpression can rescue synapse loss in these backgrounds. VAB-8/KIF26 is required for the synaptic localization of other minus-end proteins and promotes the pausing of retrograde transport to allow delivery to synapses. Consistently, reducing retrograde transport rescues synapse loss in vab-8 and neurexin mutants. These results uncover a mechanistic link between synaptogenic signaling and axonal transport. [Display omitted] • An immotile kinesin VAB-8/KIF26 localizes to neuronal microtubule minus-ends • VAB-8 levels on synaptic microtubules are controlled by neurexin and frizzled signaling • VAB-8 promotes dynein pausing to facilitate synaptic cargo delivery • VAB-8 promotes the normal accumulation of PTRN-1 on synaptic microtubule minus-ends How synaptogenic signals intercept axonal retrograde transport to enable cargo delivery to synapses is unclear. Balseiro-Gómez, Park et al. identify that in C. elegans DA9 motor neurons, neurexin and frizzled regulate the synaptic delivery of cargo by controlling VAB-8, an immotile kinesin that localizes to microtubule minus ends and promotes dynein pausing. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
SUBSTANCE abuse prevention, SUBSTANCE abuse -- Law & legislation, CONFIDENCE intervals, RESEARCH methodology, RULES, HEALTH outcome assessment, DESCRIPTIVE statistics, STATISTICAL sampling, POLICY sciences, CONTENT analysis, ODDS ratio, MEDICAL research, FEDERAL government, and DIFFUSION of innovations
Background and Aims: The growing body of research evidence on substance use and substance use disorder (SU/SUD) prevention could be leveraged to strengthen the intended impact of policies that address SU/SUD. The aim of the present study was to explore how research was used in United States federal legislation that emphasized SU/SUD prevention. Design: Using a mixed‐methods approach, we assessed whether the use of research predicted a bill's legislative progress. We randomly sampled 10 bills that represented different types of research keywords to examine how research was used in these bills, applying content analysis. Setting: United States Congress. Participants/Cases: Federal legislation introduced between the 101st and the 114th Congresses (1989–2017; n = 1866). Measurements The quantitative outcome measures were bills' likelihood of passing out of committee and being enacted. Qualitative outcomes included the ways research was used in legislation. Findings Bills that used any research language were 2.2 times more likely to pass out of committee (OR = 2.18; 95% CI, 1.75, 2.72) and 82% more likely to be enacted (OR = 1.82; 95% CI, 1.23, 2.69) than bills not using research language. Bills using dissemination words were 57% more likely to pass out of committee (OR = 1.57; CI, 1.08, 2.28) and analysis words were 93% more likely (OR = 1.93; 95% CI, 1.51, 2.47) than bills not using dissemination or analysis words. Research was used to (i) define the problem to justify legislative action, (ii) address the problem by providing funding, and (iii) address the problem through industry regulations. However, there was a lack of research use that targets underlying risk and protective factors. Conclusions: In the US Congress, substance use and substance use disorder prevention bills that use research language appear to be more likely to progress in the legislative cycle than bills that do not, suggesting that legislation using research may be viewed as more credible. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
American Journal of Bioethics. Aug2022, Vol. 22 Issue 8, p1-2. 2p.
The author reflects on her fight against the people's right to abortion. She talks about the reverberations of the Supreme Court's decision to overturn Roe vs. Wade which was felt by patients in states across the U.S., her introduction of the Women's Health Protection Act (WHPA) in 2013, and her view that Congress and the Administration should do everything to strengthen and support the Title X Program.