Reacting to an unexpected Supreme Court ruling, Congress cleared a bill in 1996 to restore the prohibition against lying to Congress or the judiciary. The measure (HR 3166—PL 104-292) carved out a broad exception, however, for testimony about legislative proposals and other lobbying activities.
General Government & Civil Service, Federal Contracts & Procurement, Law & Justice, Constitutional Law, Civil Liberties, & Individual Rights, and Claims against the Government
Sovereign immunity bars an award of interest to an attorney who wins a fee award against the federal government under the 1964 Civil Rights Act — even if the interest is intended to compensate him for the delay in payment.
Antisemitism -- History -- United States -- 1945-, Jews -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- United States, and American Jewish Congress
The victory over the Nazi regime in 1945 caused many Americans to turn their attention to the elimination of racism and prejudice at home. The Holocaust united the American Jewish community to fight against antisemitism with the goal of eliminating it forever. Changes in the Jewish leadership moved national Jewish organizations to join the Blacks' struggle for civil rights. Between 1945-50 the American Jewish Congress designed a legal attack on discrimination that was founded on the assumption that law and social science could be merged. The ideological basis of this campaign was put forward by two emigre scholars, Kurt Lewin and Alexander Pekelis. Two commissions were established in the framework of the AJC to this end, with different conceptions of how to merge science and law. The AJC was resolved to focus on all forms of discrimination rather than only on antisemitism. The AJC's scientific approach contributed to the dismantling of legalized segregation and reduction in antisemitism after 1950.
U.S. Congress & Politics, Campaigns & Elections, and Voters & Voting Rights
The city of Monroe, Georgia, was allowed to use a majority voting system for local elections even though it did not obtain specific approval under the Voting Rights Act to change from a plurality system.
General Government & Civil Service, Census & Population Data, Law & Justice, Constitutional Law, Civil Liberties, & Individual Rights, Separation of Powers, U.S. Congress & Politics, Campaigns & Elections, and Reapportionment & Redistricting
A 1941 federal law for allocating members of the U.S. House of Representatives is constitutional, the Court ruled, rejecting a challenge by the state of Montana that the statute violates the constitutional guarantee of equal representation, known as 'one person, one vote.'
U.S. Congress & Politics, Campaigns & Elections, and Campaign Finance
An extortion conviction under the Hobbs Act, arising from an elected official's receipt of a campaign contribution, requires a 'quid pro quo,' the realization of some benefit to the contributor, as a condition that the money be given.
Law & Justice, Judicial Jurisdiction, U.S. Congress & Politics, Campaigns & Elections, and Voters & Voting Rights
In two separate opinions on related controversies, the Court said the Voting Rights Act of 1965, as amended in 1982, applies to elections for judges. The rulings paved the way for major changes in how many states, particularly in the South, elect judges. An estimated forty states use ballots to select some or all of their judges.