NEW Deal, 1933-1939, REGIONAL planning, and URBAN policy
At the end of the 1930s, Americans interested in the fates and futures of their cities had the opportunity to consider two new efforts to summarize urban problems and propose solutions. The first was Our Cities: Their Role in the National Economy, published in 1937 under the auspices of the National Resources Board. The second was The City, a film sponsored by the American Institute of Planners for showing at the New York world's fair in 1939. The report and the film arose out of different analytical traditions, the first from the approach that embedded urban planning within a larger field of social science and policy making and the second from the physical planning and design tradition that had marked planning practice in the first third of the twentieth century. This article considers the origins of the two texts, compares their topical coverage and prescriptions for change, and argues that their differences encapsulated a deep tension that has continued to be manifest within urban planning in the USA into the present century. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
This article deals with the US Congress's flawed legislative attempt in the late 1960s to address urban redevelopment's shortcomings by resurrecting resettlement programmes akin to the earlier garden city and greenbelt town designs. Despite the opposition of real estate and building interests, as well as public housing advocates and big city mayors, new towns legislation was passed in 1968 and 1970. The federal government provided financial assistance to the private developers who built the thirteen new towns in various locations around the country. By the early 1980s, however, officials of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development concluded that the experiment had failed in all but one of the thirteen new towns and arranged for bankruptcy and foreclosure proceedings. The article discusses the reasons for the inefficacy of this little-known Great Society programme and suggests that the episode reflected the chequered history of urban planning in the US. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Planning Perspectives. Jan2012, Vol. 27 Issue 1, p51-80. 30p. 1 Color Photograph, 8 Black and White Photographs, 1 Illustration.
FASCISM, ITALIAN architecture, ARCHITECTURE, CORPORATE state, RATIONALISM, and URBAN planning
Corporativist urbanism, in which Italian Rationalist architects adapted modernist design principles to the scales of urban and regional planning, represented an attempt to reshape and restructure Italian society through the comprehensive transformation of the built environment. Corporativist urbanism synthesized the empirical methods and programmatic concerns endorsed by the Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne (International Congress of Modern Architecture or CIAM) with the rhetorical imperatives of the fascist regime in an attempt to rationalize industrial and agricultural production processes, promote hygienic and efficient living standards and instill in the citizenry a collective and militant mass identity in service to the fascist state. The primary vehicle for the advocates of corporativist urbanism was Quadrante, a ‘journal of battle’ that championed modern architecture and urbanism as integral components of the fascist state. Founded in May 1933 by Italy's leading Rationalist architects (as well as artists, critics, engineers and significant patrons of modern architecture), Quadrante pressed the case for an urbanism that would support the fascist regime's policies and represent its values. Quadrante's editors and contributors included Italy's most important urban planners, and all of the country's delegates to CIAM. Compared with the modern movement worldwide, the experience of Italian architects is both exemplary and exceptional: exemplary in the vital importance urbanism held for architecture (and regional planning held for urban planning), but exceptional in the centrality of fascist rhetoric to their theorization of design at every scale. The Rationalists recognized an inherent affinity between the political hierarchies and economic order of corporativist fascism and the city planning strategies of CIAM, in which the international organization turned from the question of modern architecture to a concern with urbanism in order to reform society by reordering the metropolis. This essay examines the Quadrante circle's theoretical writings on corporativist urbanism in the context of their urban planning proposals in order to understand how CIAM's principles were transformed by the organization's Italian members and how corporative fascism was shaped by designers. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
URBAN planning conferences, URBAN policy, SOCIOECONOMIC factors, PUBLIC housing, DISASTER resilience, and CONFERENCES & conventions
The article offers information on the 17th International Planning History Society Conference with the theme "History – Urbanism – Resilience" held in Delft, Netherlands from July 17-21, 2016. Topics discussed in the conference include challenges due to earthquakes, tsunamis, and climate change, Urban planning and socioeconomic inequalities. Also discussed is urban policy, Dutch social tradition of public housing, and critical resilience.
Information about several papers discussed at the 13th biennial conference of the International Planning History Society that was held in Chicago, Illinois on July 10-13 2008 is presented. The meeting which was focused on the areas of public and private planning including the landmark plan of Chicago and the importance of the diffusion of planning models in the Baltic region. It features several authors of city planning-related books including Carl Smith, Alexander Garvin and Daniel Burnham.