Satirical drama; shepherds; literary tradition; epic, Drama satírico; pastores; tradición literaria; épica, Drame satyrique; berger; tradition littéraire; épique, and Drama satírico; pastores; tradição literária; épica
The space and pastoral characters of the only fully preserved satirical drama, Euripides’ Cyclops, have been studied in relation to their Homeric hypotext, even though this line of research hasn’t been applied to fragmentary satirical dramas. This article argues that the pastoral elements found in Aeschylus and Sophocles draw on a literary tradition in which the portrait of the shepherd and the landscape descend from epic poetry, especially Homer’s.
Antigone; Sophocles; Alberto Zavalía; El límite; dictatorship; freedom; argentine civil wars and Antígona; Sófocles; Alberto de Zavalía; El Límite; ditadura; liberdade; guerras civis argentinas
By identifying with many of the tensions experienced in Argentina throughout the twentieth century, the role model of Oedipus ‘s daughter, as has happened in other Western literatures, called great interest in this Latin America country. From a significant list of five Argentine recreations of Antigone, produced in this period, we will focus only in Alberto’s Zavalía (1958), which symbolically associates facts of Argentine history of the nineteenth century to the Antigone myth in order to surreptitiously interpret a present marked by successive wars and dictatorships that, as the author says in the preface of his work, always start mortally wounded, because freedom is reborn from its own ashes .
Fernández-Biggs, Braulio and García-Huidobro, Joaquín
Antigone; Sophocles; Latin America; Forced disappearance; Leopoldo Marechal; Griselda Gambaro; Jorge Huertas; Daniela Cápona; Juan Carlos Villavicencio, Antígona; Sófocles; América latina; desaparición forzada; Leopoldo Marechal; Griselda Gambaro; Jorge Huertas; Daniela Cápona; Juan Carlos Villavicencio, Antigone; Sophocle; Amérique latine; Disparition forcée; Leopoldo Marechal; Griselda Gambaro; Jorge Huertas; Daniela Cápona; Juan Carlos Villavicencio, and Antígona; Sófocles; América latina; desaparecimento forçado; Leopoldo Marechal; Griselda Gambaro; Jorge Huertas; Daniela Cápona; Juan Carlos Villavicencio
This paper analyzes five Latin American versions of Antigone, not frequently considered. The plays exhibit significant differences with regard to the original, most of them related to painful events in the recent history of the continent. However, the plays have in common with Sophocles’ original the permanent anthropological features that have made Antigone a classic, expressed in five fundamental ideas: place, time, transcendence, conflict of legal codes and the Antigone’s psychological state.
Antígona, Mário Sacramento, Sófocles, Receção da tragédia grega, and Teatro português
Sob a influência da Antígona sofocliana, Mário de Sacramento escreveu uma peça homónima publicada, isoladamente, em 1959, no vol. XIX, nº 186 da “Revista Vértice”, e incluída, no ano seguinte, na tetralogia intitulada Teatro Anatómico. Nesta peça em um ato, a tragédia homónima de Sófocles configura-se um recurso metateatral de carácter crítico-reflexivo, em que o diálogo intertextual com o ancestral texto trágico promove uma leitura dramática do destino infortunado dos sobreviventes de uma família francesa, vítima da ocupação alemão, na Segunda Guerra Mundial, que, como os últimos Labdácidas, confrontam o sofrimento de situações-limite, ditadas por conflitos insolúveis da condição humana. Neste «ensaio dramático de Mário de Sacramento, a protagonista é uma mulher francesa, Ivonne, que no tempo do Maquis, escolhe, como nome de código, “Antígona”. Pretende-se, neste estudo, apresentar uma análise da influência exercida pela Antígona sofocliana neste «ensaio dramático», ao nível da caracterização das dramatis personae e do desenvolvimento da ação, que se sustenta numa reflexão crítica sobre as motivações da filha de Édipo e o sentido trágico das suas ações.
Truth-Telling, Literature, and Domínio/Área Científica::Humanidades
Throughout the Western literary tradition, Antigone maintains a place of honour in the narration of power struggles. In recent times, her strenuous opposition to Creon’s absolute power inevitably recalls the role of resistance within the twentieth century’s totalitarian context. However, the heroin’s juxtaposition to Creon undergoes a significant change in contemporary, literary versions of typical Antigonean acts. In particular, Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four and Wolf’s Cassandra show a situation similar to the polarized setting on Sophocles’ scene, but with a very different formulation of the dynamics between the parts. In the light of Michel Foucault’s analysis of power structures, this new relationship can be read as an attempt, on the resistant’s part, at re-subjectification. One of the fundamental practices of this process is that of truth-telling, analyzed by the late Foucault in its classical formulation of parrhesia. By applying the philosopher’s breakdown of this concept to the endeavour performed by the novels’ protagonists, the political value of parrhesia emerges as both a form of resistance and a requirement for any anti-totalitarian settings. However, the pervasiveness of power binds truth-telling with a necessary process of “care of the self” leading to selfknowledge: a process that only seems to be available for elite groups. In the aftermath of last century’s totalitarianism, these Antigones descend to their death in order to deliver a powerful message of resistance, which is deeply personal and political, external and internal. Their main question to us remains, what kind of Antigones do we want for our society?
Agamemnon of the Iliad; tragedy; ethical progression; human level of action/divine level, Agamenón de Ilíada; tragedia; progresión ética; plano humano de acción/ plano divino, Agamemnon de l’Iliade; tragédie ; progression éthique ; plan humain de l’action/plan divin, and Agamémnon da Ilíada; tragédia; progressão ética; plano humano de ação/ plano divino
In the Iliad, the main heroic characters undergo a transition from a culture in which mankind is left in the hands of the gods, or of an unquestionable fate, to a position in which the human being assumes his responsibility in the setting of an interaction between the human and the divine levels, a position where Aeschylus’ heroes, as well as those in Sophocles and Euripides, will behave in accordance with their respective dramatic premises.
Dor, Filoctetes, Representação estética, Sentido humano, Aesthetic representation, Human significance, Pain, and Philoctetes
Filoctetes de Sófocles é o paradigma para avaliar a dor e sua representação estética. A função de educação moral da arte leva o século xviii alemão a discutir a expressão da dor: deve ser contida ou exteriorizada? A atitude pessoal varia segundo a resistência, circunstâncias, regras sociais, integração em referências culturais. A dor não consiste só nos sinais neurotransmitidos da lesão ao cérebro. Implica a totalidade do ser, nas suas tonalidades psicológicas, afectivas, morais, volitivas. Ela rompe o ritmo da existência, desfigura a identidade, desarticula o discurso. Intransferível, gera limitações. Prova singular, expõe a possibilidade universal de sofrer. Muda a compreensão da realidade. Suscita a questão ontológica essencial: o sentido do ser vivo consignado ao sofrimento e à aniquilação.
Teixeira, Cláudia, Pimentel, Cristina, and Morão, Paula
Cândido Lusitano, Tradução, Édipo, and Medeia
This paper discusses the reception and the principles that underlie the translation of the Sophocles' and Seneca's Oedipus Rex and of Euripides' and Seneca's Medea made by Cândido Lusitano, who are still handwritten. In this sense, we will give special attention to the introductory notes which preface the works listed and will try to discuss the provided on translations and discuss their suitability to the normative elements of the neoclassical aesthetic.
Always with explicit political objectives, António Sérgio has recreated the myth of Antigone several times (1930, c. 1950, 1958) by adjusting it to the object of its contestation. In the third and last version, in order to rebel against the Estado Novo authoritarian regime that, in the 1958 fraudulent presidential elections, had successfully led its candidate to power, Sérgio resorts to the essential minimal elements of the tragic plot that already incorporated the suitable and necessary rhetoric of protest and liberty. Keywords: António Sérgio, Antigone, Sophocles, Aristotle, minimal, allegory, political contestation, Humberto Delgado, salazarismo.
The Alexandros of Euripides is a tragedy based on the motif of the child who was exposed at birth, as had been Sophocles’ Oidipus Rex or the legend of Cyrus told by Herodotus. This motif is intertwined in the tragedy with a series of episodes — the athletic contest, the victory and crowning of the victor, the anagnorisis — which characterise Alexandros as a potential tyrannos and which display a drama of political consequences. In the historical context of the representation — 415 B.C. — it is possible to find some analogies between Alexandros and Alcibiades, the latter having won the Olympic games the year before, and appearing to be as handsome and powerful as the protagonist of the tragedy, though the substantial political meaning of the play (and trilogy) lies elsewhere: on the difficulty of the government of a city where participation becomes competition and where excellence poses a threat to the principle of equality and is at risk of distorting itself through unrestrained eros and lust. Keywords: Alexandros; Euripides; motif of the child exposed at birth; Alcibiades; tragedy and politics.
Being a polygraph writer, António Sérgio (1883-1969) wrote an Antigone, in 1930, during his exile in Paris, which he has defined as a “social study in dialogue form”. Bearing this statement in mind, we have attempted to show that the author, by constantly resorting to an interplay of masks and innuendo, has recreated Sophocle’s myth according to his thought, clearly influenced by Kant’s, and his political views regarding the military dictatorship set up on 28th May 1926. Keywords: Portuguese Literature, Greek Literature, Greek Drama, António Sérgio, Sophocles, Antigone, Reception of Classical Literature.
This article intends to show that, in the tragedy Antigone by Sophocles, power is presented as something perverse, to such an extent that it conditions the behaviour of the inhabitants of the city, and principally of Creon, the figure which is analysed in detail. This reflection on power, suggested by this tragedy, also makes sense when applied to our own time: a sign of the evident actuality of classical literature.