Unidentified flying objects, Photography of unidentified flying objects, Unidentified flying object cults, Unidentified flying objects in popular culture, and Alien abduction
Unidentified flying objects, also known as UFOs, have captured the interest of people worldwide for decades. Myth or truth, imagination or force to be reckoned with—these are some of the ongoing debates surrounding the topic of UFOs. What appears to be evident is that the subject of UFOs is not within the realm of independent people or groups only, but that scientists are constantly investigating the matter. More important, there is evidence of the US government following reports and paying attention to the veracity of UFOs.
In June, 1969, Democratic U.S. senator Gaylord Nelson of Wisconsin, having observed how anti-Vietnam War demonstrations and “teach-ins” had influenced public opinion, conceived of the idea of a large teach-in to educate the general public about the importance of environmental issues. He suggested that such an event should be planned for April 22, a day when many states commemorated Arbor Day and a day that would not conflict with the timing of final exams on college campuses. Recognizing the potential of the idea, a small group of concerned citizens founded the organization Environmental Action to sponsor the event. They were able to raise the modest sum of $125,000, and a dynamic young law student, Denis Hayes, was put in charge of publicizing and coordinating activities. Senator Nelson and Republican congressman Paul N. McCloskey of California were named official co-chairs of the event.
Unemployment rates are one of the strongest indicators of the economic health of a nation. A person is considered unemployed when they are without a job yet actively seeking paid employment. When large numbers of a country’s workforce become unemployed, both they and employed workers who are afraid of losing their own jobs become afraid to spend money. Low demand triggers further job loss as profits decline. Thus, unemployment benefits are seen as a way to help stabilize the economy as well as provide individuals and families with safety nets during times of financial crisis.
The processing and packing of meat for commercial purposes in the United States began in colonial times. Animals, primarily hogs and cattle, were either driven alive to urban centers or killed and processed at the place where they were raised. Local processing was done chiefly during the winter months, and the meat was transported in the spring, since no method of refrigerated storage existed. Meat intended for export or intercolonial shipment was placed in barrels filled with brine for preservation.
Greenpeace International, Nuclear nonproliferation, and Climate change prevention
An independent international activist and research organization, Greenpeace is funded almost entirely by contributions from its members. It works to produce and distribute educational and advocacy materials, support grassroots activism, encourage pressure on legislatures and other national and international bodies, and conduct original research on global warming, clean energy, and other issues.
British historian. Toynbee’s controversial challenge and response theory of history rejected race, God, and environment as explanations for the emergence of civilizations. He reasoned that societies emerged when a particular people responded successfully to a challenge, or adversity, such as climate or geography. Human unpredictability was a major factor in this dynamic historical process of challenge and response.
American astronomer. Maria Mitchell was born into a Quaker seafaring community that encouraged women to become self-reliant and well educated. Her mother and grandmother were both teachers. Her father, William Mitchell, was also a teacher who had a part-time position with the U.S. Coast Survey, for which he observed stars to check the accuracy of the chronometers that were used to tell time and chart longitude on whaling ships. From the age of twelve, Maria counted seconds for her father. She attended the academy of Cyrus Peirce, served as her father’s teaching assistant at the age of sixteen, and opened her own school at the age of seventeen.
Scottish-born American religious leader and educator. A leading pastor in the Church of Scotland, Witherspoon, as president of the College of New Jersey, led its development into a major center of education for the arts and sciences and for the preparation of Presbyterian ministers. As a Second Continental Congress delegate, he championed American independence and signed the Declaration of Independence.
American writer. Herman Melville was the second son of Allan and Maria Gansevoort Melvill. (The final e was added to the family name after Allan’s death in 1832, perhaps to indicate the family’s connection with the aristocratic Melville clan of Scotland.) He grew up in the shadow of his older brother, Gansevoort, for whom the family had high expectations. In contrast, his mother found seven-year-old Herman “very backward in speech and somewhat slow in comprehension.” The Melvills wanted all of their children to excel because of the family’s prominence.
English novelist. Anthony Trollope (TRAHL-uhp) was the son of the writer Frances (Fanny) Milton Trollope and Thomas Anthony Trollope, a barrister. Shortly after his birth, the family, including five older children, moved from London to a farm in Harrow-on-the-Hill, sixteen miles outside London. His father hoped to work the farm and commute to London for his law practice. He never prospered at either endeavor and lived in the hope of inheriting the fortune of a bachelor uncle, only to see him marry and start a family of his own late in life. This disappointment would later inspire Anthony Trollope to create fictional characters who feel they have been treated harshly by life.
American biochemist. Stanley’s crystallization of the tobacco mosaic virus in the mid-1930’s illustrated the ability to purify viruses in large quantities for subsequent study and also demonstrated the protein nature of viruses.
Associate justice of the United States (1902-1932). Noted as a U.S. Supreme Court associate justice, Holmes helped set the stage for the development of modern American jurisprudence. He developed the concept of “clear and present danger” as the only justification for curtailing the right of free speech.
German aeronautical designer. Zeppelin developed the concepts and designs for the construction of the first practical airships capable of navigating over long distances. The success of Zeppelin’s rigid dirigibles, or blimps, served to stimulate experimentation in all areas of aeronautics and paved the way for military and commercial applications of airships.
American governor of New York (1919-1920, 1923-1928). Smith was a leading figure in the Democratic Party during the Progressive Era and the 1920’s. He represented the urban, immigrant Roman Catholic, and relatively liberal interests of the party at a time when it was deeply divided along regional, cultural, and ideological lines. He was governor of New York, and he ran for president of the United States but lost to Herbert Hoover in 1928.
German scientist and physician. Born the son of a draper and named Georg Bauer, he later Latinized his name, in the fashion of the time, to Georgius Agricola (ah-GRIH-koh-lah). Little is known about his life before 1514, at which point he entered the University of Leipzig. In 1518, he was graduated, then went to Italy to continue his studies at the Universities of Bologna and Padua. His subsequent career began as a philologist, an expert in classical languages and the works of the classical writers. He then turned to medicine, took his degree at the University of Ferrare, and adopted medicine as a profession.
American writer and critic. One of the most controversial literary figures of his generation, Mailer redefined the art of literary journalism in the United States and became a prominent and unpredictable writer and social critic.
Mountbatten of Burma, Louis Mountbatten, Earl, 1900-1979
Viceroy and governor-general of India (1947-1948). A naval hero and military leader during World War II, the last viceroy of imperial India, and the first and only governor-general of an independent India, Mountbatten was a figure of great achievement, the most enduringly significant of which was perhaps the example of leadership he provided for his nephew and surrogate son Prince Philip, duke of Edinburgh, and for his great-nephew and surrogate grandson Charles, prince of Wales.
American philanthropist. Famous largely for her rescue efforts in the Titanic disaster, Brown used her social connections and flair to further many social causes, mainly in Denver, Colorado. She led fund drives for the city’s first Roman Catholic cathedral, for at-risk youth, and for the establishment of theaters and museums. A fervent campaigner for woman suffrage and for labor rights, she ran for the U.S. Senate in 1914.
American writer and feminist. Friedan’s book The Feminine Mystique (1963) energized an untold number of women and helped spark the second wave of the feminist movement. Although Friedan became a leader in the continuing struggle for women’s rights, she also was a controversial figure. She later advocated against radical feminism and sexual politics and argued instead for unity with men in common struggle for gender equality.
Native American leader. Chief Joseph (Heinmot Tooyalakekt in his native tongue, which translates as Thunder-Rolling-in-the-Mountains) was born to Old Joseph (Tuekakas) and Asenoth. His exact birthdate is unknown, but he was baptized Ephraim on April 12, 1840, by the Reverend Mr. Henry H. Spalding, who maintained a Presbyterian mission at Lapwai in the heart of Nez Perce country. This area, which comprises parts of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, contains some of the most desirable land in the United States. As such, white Americans desired the land upon which the Nez Perce and other bands of Indians lived.