Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health, Nutrition and Dietetics, and Food Science
Background: The Ketogenic diet has gained popularity, especially among college students in the past few years, mainly as a strategy for fast weight losse but due to lack of appropriate knowledge of ketogenic diet plan might affect their overall health. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate knowledge and perception about ketogenic diet among students of three different faculties of Northern Border University, Arar, KSA. Methods: The present study had a cross sectional study design and a total of 303 (214 female and 89 males) students were contacted between 15 February and 20 March, 2021. A self-administered online (Google form) questionnaire was used to investigate socio-demographic data as well as student’s knowledge and perception about the ketogenic diet. Results: The majority of the participants, 197 (65%) know that ketogenic diet compise of high fat, moderate protein, and low carbohydrate. The main therapeutic aim for adopting a ketogenic diet was weight loss for 153 participants (50.3%), whereas 115 (38%) of them adopted it for treating poly cystic ovary (PCOD) and only 84 (27. 7%) for controlling diabetes. The source of knowledge about the ketogenic diet was primarily social media 199 (65.9%), and only 82 (27.2%) adopted it after consultation from a dietitian. However, 72 particiants (23.8%) believed that the ketogenic diet did not have any adverse effects on the human body. Conclusion: The result of the present study indicates that students had convincing knowledge and perception about the ketogenic diet as well as its therapeutic uses. However, pre-diet counseling is imperative for everyone to know every aspect and correct technique for carrying out this diet.
Filia Garivaldis, Stephen McKenzie, Danah Henriksen, and Sylvie Studente
Australasian Journal of Educational Technology. 38:1-11
In this special issue of the Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, we take a step back from the events of the last 2 years and the changes that we have seen in the education arena, to remember that which has remained constant – how students learn best. Developing teaching and learning pedagogy based on lasting education theory and practice makes the past of education relevant to the present and future and creates a context where innovation can be scaled and taken further, from a single instance of impact to many. In this editorial, we present an argument for going back to our roots and present examples of the effective use of established theories of learning that continue to advance online education practice. We discuss the scaling of educational best practice to more students and more institutions, and we provide recommendations for creating sustainable and lasting future practice.
Raghu S Nagalingam, Sikta Chattopadhyaya, Danah S Al-Hattab, David Y C Cheung, Leah Y Schwartz, Sayantan Jana, Nina Aroutiounova, D Allison Ledingham, Teri L Moffatt, Natalie M Landry, Rushita A Bagchi, Ian M C Dixon, Jeffrey T Wigle, Gavin Y Oudit, Zamaneh Kassiri, Davinder S Jassal, and Michael P Czubryt
European Heart Journal. 43:4739-4750
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Aims In response to pro-fibrotic signals, scleraxis regulates cardiac fibroblast activation in vitro via transcriptional control of key fibrosis genes such as collagen and fibronectin; however, its role in vivo is unknown. The present study assessed the impact of scleraxis loss on fibroblast activation, cardiac fibrosis, and dysfunction in pressure overload-induced heart failure. Methods and results Scleraxis expression was upregulated in the hearts of non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy patients, and in mice subjected to pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Tamoxifen-inducible fibroblast-specific scleraxis knockout (Scx-fKO) completely attenuated cardiac fibrosis, and significantly improved cardiac systolic function and ventricular remodelling, following TAC compared to Scx+/+ TAC mice, concomitant with attenuation of fibroblast activation. Scleraxis deletion, after the establishment of cardiac fibrosis, attenuated the further functional decline observed in Scx+/+ mice, with a reduction in cardiac myofibroblasts. Notably, scleraxis knockout reduced pressure overload-induced mortality from 33% to zero, without affecting the degree of cardiac hypertrophy. Scleraxis directly regulated transcription of the myofibroblast marker periostin, and cardiac fibroblasts lacking scleraxis failed to upregulate periostin synthesis and secretion in response to pro-fibrotic transforming growth factor β. Conclusion Scleraxis governs fibroblast activation in pressure overload-induced heart failure, and scleraxis knockout attenuated fibrosis and improved cardiac function and survival. These findings identify scleraxis as a viable target for the development of novel anti-fibrotic treatments.
Tom Ala, Danah Bakir, Srishti Goel, Nida Feller, Albert Botchway, and Cindy Womack
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 89:1119-1129
Psychiatry and Mental health, Geriatrics and Gerontology, Clinical Psychology, General Medicine, and General Neuroscience
Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) differ in their memory, attention, and visuoconstructional characteristics. The subscales of the well-known Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) provide an opportunity to assess these characteristics. Previous research has shown that analysis of the MMSE subscale performance of AD and DLB patients helps to differentiate them. Objective: Study the MMSE scores of AD and DLB patients to see if the ability of previously reported analyses to differentiate them could be improved. Include other dementia patients for perspective. Methods: We studied the MMSEs of all patients seen in our clinics during an 18-month period. Different equations were studied, derived from the subscales of Memory (M, 3 points maximum), Attention (A, 5 points maximum), and Pentagon-copying (P, 1 point maximum). Results: We obtained 400 MMSEs, 136 from AD patients and 24 from DLB patients, scoring range 1–30. The equation P minus M provided the best discrimination between AD and DLB. Using a P-M score = 1 to identify AD, the positive predictive value was 0.97, negative predictive value 0.22, specificity 0.92, and sensitivity 0.43. As a secondary finding, the P-M = 1 equation was also helpful to differentiate AD from Parkinson’s disease dementia. Conclusion: Considering AD versus DLB in our clinic population, a demented patient who was unable to recall the three memory words on the MMSE but able to copy the intersecting pentagons had a 97% likelihood of having AD. Additional work is needed to improve the sensitivity of the P-M = 1 equation.
Asim Ahmed Elnour, Nadia Sarfaraz Raja, Fatemeh Abdi, Fariha Mostafiz, Razan Isam Elmubarak, Alaa MohsenQ Khalil, Khawla Abou Hait, Mariam Mohamed Alqahtani, Nour Dabbagh, Zainab Abdulnasser, Danah Albek, Abdelfattah Amer, Nosayba Al Damook, Aya Shayeb, Sara Alblooshi, Mohammed Samir, Abdallah Abou Hajal, Nora Al Barakani, Rahf Balbahaith, Hamda Al Mazrouie, and Rahaf Ahmed Ali
Phonetics plays a major role in the fabrication of prostheses. This study aimed to assess the knowledge of students regarding the role of phonetics in denture fabrication and to improve the educational process and the clinical application. The study was conducted at the College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, and involved a survey of 344 dental students and interns. The questionnaire contained 20 questions and was divided into three sections: general knowledge, clinical correlations, and clinical evaluations. The data were collected and analyzed statistically using independent t-tests, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey’s post hoc tests. The response rate was 100%. Male and female students only differed significantly in terms of their scores for answers to general knowledge questions, with females achieving better results (p = 0.023). General knowledge varied significantly between fourth-year students and all other levels (p < 0.001), and fifth-year students and interns (p = 0.027). The clinical correlations varied significantly between fourth-year students and interns (p = 0.01), whereas the clinical evaluations varied between all the academic years and interns (fourth-year, p < 0.001; fifth-year, p = 0.003; and sixth-year, p = 0.017). The interns obtained the highest scores in all sections. There was a lack of awareness among dental students of some aspects of the role of phonetics in denture fabrication. The study highlights the deficiencies that need to be addressed and the need for adjustments to the curriculum related to removable prosthodontics in order to improve the knowledge of students regarding the role of speech in denture fabrication.
Rishi B. Gupta, Harry Dang, Danah Albreiki, Michael LE. Dollin, Bonnie Weston, and Chloe C. Gottlieb
BMC Ophthalmology. 22
Ophthalmology and General Medicine
Background Acute annular outer retinopathy (AAOR) is an uncommon disease. To date, there are few documented cases in the literature. Our case report is the first to describe a case of acute annular outer retinopathy in a patient with invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Case presentation The patient presented with photopsias and visual loss approximately 3 weeks prior to a diagnosis of invasive ductal breast carcinoma. We have documented the outer annular white ring seen in the acute phase of this disease and correlate it anatomically with Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging. We identified RPE atrophy with nodular hyperreflectivity and loss of ellipsoid layer within the white annular ring with corresponding visual field loss. Fundus autofluorescence correlated with structural alterations seen on SD-OCT and showed both presumed active hyperautofluorescent zones with patchy hypoautofluorescent zones of atrophy and a classic annular hyperautofluorescent border. This case provides additional information about the natural history of this rare entity and its prognosis and varied presentation. Conclusions The authors report a single case of acute annular outer retinopathy in a patient with invasive ductal breast carcinoma with the corresponding SD-OCT, fundus autofluorescence and visual field findings, during the acute phase of the disease. These findings provide new insight into the characteristic features, etiology and progression of this rare disease.