Yamazaki, Tadashi, Igarashi, Jun, Makino, Junichiro, and Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu
International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications. Jan2019, Vol. 33 Issue 1, p155-168. 14p.
Robotics, Artificial intelligence, Simulation methods & models, Cerebellum, and Motor learning
The cerebellum is a part of the brain that plays essential roles in real-time motor learning and control and even cognitive functions. Thanks to the large amount of anatomical and physiological data, we implemented a spiking network model of the cerebellum on Shoubu, an energy-efficient supercomputer with 1280 PEZY-SC processors at RIKEN. Our artificial cerebellum consists of more than one billion neurons, which is comparable to the whole cerebellum of a cat. Using 1008 of 1280 processors on Shoubu, we achieved real-time simulation, that is, a computer simulation of the model for 1 s completes within 1 s of the real world with temporal resolution of 1 ms. Effective performance was estimated as 68 teraflops in single-precision floating points, suggesting 2.6% of peak performance. We expect that the artificial cerebellum will be applicable to various engineering applications, such as robotics and brain-style artificial intelligence. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Cerebellum, Families, Child development, Brain, and Disabilities
The article focuses on Ethan Deviney who was born without a cerebellum. Topics discussed include Deviney being described in most ways pretty close to normal because what his absent cerebellum cannot do, the rest of his brain and the rest of his family can, supporting his development which became the family's primary mission, and Constanzo Varolio, an Italian anatomist who decided that the cerebellum must be the brain's seat of taste and hearing.
Brain, Optogenetics, Proteins, Cerebellum, and Light emitting diodes
The article offers information on how brain responds to sensory and motor cues by using optogenetics approach that combines genetics and optics. Topics discussed include light-responsive proteins that are used in optogenetics, cerebellum's role in controlling brain, and microsized light-emitting diodes that provide optogenetic stimulation.
Research, Research funding, Neurons, Cerebellum, Tissues, Brain, Infrared spectroscopy, Light scattering, Frontal lobes, Neural physiology, Finger physiology, Comparative studies, Research methodology, Medical cooperation, Near infrared spectroscopy, Signal processing, Evaluation research, Body movement, Oxygen consumption, and Physiology
Fast changes, in the range of milliseconds, in the optical properties of cerebral tissue are associated with brain activity and can be detected using non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). These changes are assumed to be caused by changes in the light scattering properties of the neuronal tissue. The aim of this study was to develop highly sensitive data analysis algorithms to detect this fast signal, which is small compared with other physiological signals. A frequency-domain tissue oximeter, whose laser diodes were intensity modulated at 110 MHz, was used. The amplitude, mean intensity and phase of the modulated optical signal were measured at a sample rate of 96 Hz. The probe, consisting of four crossed source detector pairs was placed above the motor cortex, contralateral to the hand performing a tapping exercise consisting of alternating rest and tapping periods of 20 s each. An adaptive filter was used to remove the arterial pulsatility from the optical signals. Independent component analysis allowed further separation of a signal component containing the fast signal. In nine out of 14 subjects, a significant fast neuronal signal related to the finger tapping was found in the intensity signals. In the phase signals, indications of the fast signal were found in only two subjects. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]