COMMITTEES, REGRESSION analysis, LEGISLATION, UNITED States. Congress, SENIORITY system, and SCHOLARS
Objective: Despite the formal seniority system's demise, long‐serving members of the U.S. House of Representatives continue to demonstrate disproportionate legislative effectiveness in what scholars universally consider a strong‐party era. I test a bonding model of the continued utility of legislative seniority in an effort to understand the causal mechanism. Methods: I use regression and multilevel mixed effects analyses of roll‐call and co‐sponsorship data in the U.S. House from the 1990s and early 2000s to test hypotheses derived from the model. Results: The results are consistent with a process in which senior members attract support for their legislation through relationships cultivated over time. Seniority does not act like a commodity. Conclusion: Seniority continues to provide value to its holders in the House by providing them opportunities to strengthen bonds with colleagues used to build coalitions for their legislative proposals. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
International Social Science Review. 2019, Vol. 95 Issue 3, p1-27. 27p.
COMMITTEES, UNITED States. Congress. House, UNITED States -- Politics & government, DEMOCRATS -- Political activity, and UNITED States political parties
The article informs that discusses how the U.S. House committee assignment has long been a widely-discussed topic in academic research due to its strategic legislative importance. Topics discussed include relationships between party loyalty and committee assignment; use of members' loyalty score as the degree of similarity between a member's roll-call voting record and that of the party's majority; and difference between Democrats and Republicans.
MASS media, GATEKEEPING, POLARIZATION (Social sciences), POLITICAL doctrines, TELEVISION broadcasting of news, and CABLE television networks
Today's news media environment incentivizes gatekeeping practices that lead to a bias toward content containing partisan conflict and ideological extremity. Using a content analysis of 46,218 cable and broadcast television news transcripts from the 109th through 112th Congresses, we examined the frequency with which members of Congress appeared on cable and broadcast news. When we modelled on-air statements by members of Congress as a function of legislator and institutional characteristics, we revealed a gatekeeping function that vastly overrepresents extreme partisans on both sides of the aisle. The effect is largely consistent for network and cable outlets alike, suggesting that gatekeeping processes under both market and advocacy models bias content towards the extreme and conflictual. This finding is particularly important in light of recent evidence linking media-driven misperceptions about polarization to partisan-ideological sorting and negative political affect in the electorate. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Journal of Politics. Apr2018, Vol. 80 Issue 2, p731-735. 5p.
LEGISLATION, SENATORS (U.S.), and HIERARCHIES
Just like members of the House, US senators vary in how effective they are at lawmaking. We create Legislative Effectiveness Scores for each senator in each of the 93rd-113th Congresses (1973-2015). We use these scores to explore common claims about institutional differences in lawmaking between the House and the Senate. Our analysis offers strong support for the claim that the Senate is a more egalitarian and individualistic lawmaking body, in comparison to the relatively hierarchical institutional structure of the House. The scores developed here offer scholars numerous opportunities to explore important lawmaking phenomena. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
CORONAVIRUS Aid, Relief, & Economic Security Act (U.S.), COVID-19, SMALL business, FINANCE, SOLE proprietorship, INDEPENDENT contractors, and UNITED States
The article informs that the U.S. the House of Representatives has passed the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act (CARES Act), that will be signed by U.S. President Donald Trump. It mentions that the Act amends the Small Business Act 7(a), a loan program to include a new guaranteed and unsecured loan program; and also mentions that the loan program also covers individuals operating under sole proprietorships, independent contractors and self-employed individuals.
Becher, Michael, Stegmueller, Daniel, and Käppner, Konstantin
Journal of Politics. Apr2018, Vol. 80 Issue 2, p539-554. 16p.
LABOR unions -- Political activity, LABOR organizing, LABOR movement, and ELECTION districts
The political power of labor unions is a contentious issue in the social sciences. Departing from the dominant focus on membership size, we argue that union's influence on national law making is based to an important degree on their local organization. We delineate the novel hypothesis that the horizontal concentration of union members within electoral districts matters. To test it, we draw on administrative records and map the membership size and concentration of local unions to districts of the US House of Representatives, 2003-12. We find that, controlling for membership size, representatives from districts with less concentrated unions have more liberal voting records than their peers. This concentration effect survives numerous district controls and relaxing OLS assumptions. While surprising for several theoretical perspectives, it is consistent with theories based on social incentives. These results have implications for our broader understanding of political representation and the role of groups in democratic politics. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
U.S. News - The Civic Report. 10/11/2019, pC1-C4. 4p. 1 Color Photograph.
GOVERNMENTAL investigations and IMPEACHMENT of presidents
The article offers information on the U.S. President Donald Trump and majority Democrats in the House of Representatives are colliding in the most extraordinary test of the Constitution's separation of powers in many years. It mentions that Trump has accused Former Vice President Joe Biden of corruption in Ukraine; and also mentions that charges against Biden are so improper that they have become part of the presidential impeachment inquiry.
(Bloomberg) -- Geoffrey Berman, ousted as the U.S. attorney for the Southern District of New York amid ongoing investigations of President Donald Trump's businesses and inaugural committee, is scheduled to be interviewed next week by the House Judiciary Committee. Berman resigned after Barr changed his choice of who would replace him, picking instead Deputy U.S. Attorney Audrey Strauss, a trusted prosecutor in the office who had already been overseeing Trump-related investigations. [Extracted from the article]
LOSS control, RATES, POLITICAL party leadership, PARTIES, EVIDENCE, and PARTISANSHIP
A simulation‐based counterfactual is one way to solve the observational equivalence challenge that seemingly "partisan" majority‐party roll rates can be observed in the absence of any actual party influence. We simulate no‐partisan‐agenda‐control counterfactual roll rates and apply them across sessions of the US House of Representatives and 86 state legislative chambers to evaluate the extent to which observed roll rates provide evidence for party influence on the legislative agenda. After assessing and controlling for the baseline risk of majority‐party rolls, there is significant evidence of party influence on roll rates in some state legislatures, particularly those with rules that grant parties more agenda power, and in the post‐Reed's‐rules House of Representatives. Institutional rules interact with the (simulated) risk of a majority roll to shape observed roll rates across chambers and across time. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
HOUSING, COVID-19 pandemic, INTERNATIONAL relations, INVOICES, and LEGISLATIVE bills
(Bloomberg) -- The U.S. House of Representatives passed by unanimous consent a bill imposing sanctions on banks that do business with Chinese officials involved in cracking down on pro-democracy protesters in Hong Kong. The House bill, which was slightly modified from the Senate version sponsored by Senators Pat Toomey, a Pennsylvania Republican, and Chris Van Hollen, a Maryland Democrat, was changed because of a procedural snag that requires all revenue-producing bills to originate in the House. [Extracted from the article]
(Bloomberg) -- Six Republicans on the House Foreign Affairs Committee are urging President Donald Trump to reconsider his plan to cut the number of U.S. troops in Germany, arguing that the move would harm national security and weaken the deterrent to Russia and China. While the lawmakers commended Trump for trying to get NATO allies to spend more on defense, they said withdrawing troops from Germany would harm the effort. [Extracted from the article]
(Bloomberg) -- A new U.S. House panel created to oversee coronavirus relief spending will focus its first briefing on requirements to safely reopen the American economy during the coronavirus pandemic. Republicans have warned they believe Democrats will use the committee for partisan attacks on Trump and his administration. [Extracted from the article]
Pozen, David E., Talley, Eric L., and Nyarko, Julian
Cornell Law Review. Dec2019, Vol. 105 Issue 1, p1-84. 84p.
CONSTITUTIONAL history, EDITORIAL writing, and POLITICAL parties
This Article is the first to use computational methods to investigate the ideological and partisan structure of constitutional discourse outside the courts. We apply a range of machine-learning and text-analysis techniques to a newly available data set comprising all remarks made on the U.S. House and Senate floors from 1873 to 2016, as well as a collection of more recent newspaper editorials. Among other findings, we demonstrate (1) that constitutional discourse has grown increasingly polarized over the past four decades; (2) that polarization has grown faster in constitutional discourse than in nonconstitutional discourse; (3) that conservative-leaning speakers have driven this trend; (4) that members of Congress whose political party does not control the presidency or their own chamber are significantly more likely to invoke the Constitution in some, but not all, contexts; and (5) that contemporary conservative legislators have developed an especially coherent constitutional vocabulary, with which they have come to "own" not only terms associated with the document's original meaning but also terms associated with textual provisions such as the First Amendment. Above and beyond these concrete contributions, this Article demonstrates the potential for computational methods to advance the study of constitutional history, politics, and culture. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
LEGISLATIVE voting, INCUMBENCY (Public officers), PRESIDENTS of the United States, and POLITICAL affiliation
Theories of candidate positioning suggest that candidates will respond dynamically to their electoral environment. Because of the difficulty of obtaining “bridge votes”, most existing approaches for estimating the ideal points of members of Congress generate static ideal points or ideal points that move linearly over time. We propose an approach for dynamic ideal point estimation using Project Vote Smart’s National Political Awareness Test to construct bridge votes. We use our dynamic estimates to measure aggregate change, to measure individual-level change, and to study the institutional and structural factors that explain the changing positions of House candidates and members of Congress. We demonstrate that while the Republican Party has been selecting increasingly extreme candidates, Democratic incumbents have become more extreme while in office. We also find that the congruence between elected members of Congress and their constituents is mostly explained by the selection as opposed to the responsiveness of the candidate. Nonetheless, we find evidence of dynamic responsiveness of incumbents in specific circumstances. We find that competitiveness, midterm elections, and sharing the president’s party affiliation are associated with greater responsiveness. Conversely, retirement is not associated with a change in responsiveness. We find no evidence of responsiveness of challengers. Finally, we find that close elections draw challengers who are more in line with the district’s ideology. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Time International (South Pacific Edition). 12/23/2019, Vol. 194 Issue 27/28, p84-85. 2p.
HOUSING and STATE of the Union messages
The article highlights the political contributions of Nancy Pelosi, speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives. Topics discussed include her efforts to stand against the border-wall policy of U.S. President Donald Trump, her announcement of the House's articles of impeachment against Trump on December 10, 2019, and the extent of her battle for democracy.
American Journal of Public Health. Jun2020, Vol. 110 Issue 6, p776-777. 2p.
TOBACCO industry laws and ELECTRONIC cigarettes
The article examines how U.S. House legislation known as HR 2339 attempts to address aspects of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance and regulation concerning the mitigation of access to flavored vaping products among young people.
Abrams, Abigail, Abramson, Alana, and Alter, Charlotte
TIME Magazine. 1/21/2019, Vol. 193 Issue 2, p32-37. 6p. 13 Color Photographs.
CULTURAL pluralism -- United States, DEMOCRATS -- Political activity, REPUBLICANS -- Political activity, and INTERGENERATIONAL relations
The article discusses the diverse membership of the freshman class of the 116th U.S. Congress House of Representatives which was sworn into office on January 3, 2019, and it provides brief profiles of legislators such as Democrat Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Republican Dan Crenshaw. According to the article, this class of legislators is the most ethnically, racially, and generationally diverse in U.S. history. Native American politician Deb Haaland is assessed.
(Bloomberg) -- Two members of the U.S. House announced Wednesday that they tested positive for the coronavirus as the government tries to mitigate its spread and protect the endangered U.S. economy. Diaz-Balart, 58, began to feel ill with a fever and a headache after the House voted Saturday on an expansive spending bill to respond to the spreading virus, which has brought the economy almost to a halt. [Extracted from the article]
(Bloomberg) -- The House committee investigating the Boeing 737 Max blasted U.S. regulators and the Boeing Co. for a series of design and safety blunders involving the jet that's been grounded for almost a year after two fatal crashes. In addition, Boeing in 2012 slashed thousands of work-hours spent on elements of the 737 Max program as a cost-cutting move, the committee said. [Extracted from the article]
(Bloomberg) -- The House committee investigating the Boeing 737 Max blasted U.S. aviation regulators and the Boeing Co. for a series of design and safety blunders involving the jet that's been grounded for almost a year after two fatal crashes. "Developing a transport category commercial aircraft that is compliant with FAA regulations but fundamentally flawed and unsafe highlights an aviation oversight system in desperate need of repair", the committee wrote. [Extracted from the article]