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1. Философско-правовое понимание принципов и форм осуществления плюрализма: пример Соединенных штатов Америки 
КРАВЧЕНКО СЕРГЕЙ СЕРГЕЕВИЧ
- Вісник Маріупольського державного університету. Сер.: Право, 2226-3047, 7 38-47, Украина, Мариуполь
ЗАКОНОТВОРЧЕСТВО, НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЕ МЕНЬШИНСТВА, ПЛЮРАЛИЗМ, ПРАГМАТИЗМ, ФЕМИНИЗМ, ФИЛОСОФИЯ ПРАВА, ЗАКОНОТВОРЧіСТЬ, НАЦіОНАЛЬНі МЕНШИНИ, ПЛЮРАЛіЗМ, ФЕМіНіЗМ, ФіЛОСОФіЯ ПРАВА, LAW-MAKING, NATIONAL MINORITIES, PLURALISM, PRAGMATISM, FEMINISM, and PHILOSOPHY OF LAW
Американская философия права ХХ века касается самых проблемных вопросов по правам человека. В первую очередь это права женщин и права национальных меньшинств. В связи с этим зарождаются новые философские движения и школы, которые выработали свое толкование философии плюрализма в контексте прагматизма. Среди известных были движения феминизма и Критики расовых теорий. Философское наследие указанных движений имеет большое значение для развития правовой системы Украины и других стран Европы, поскольку в наших государствах на сегодняшний день возникает много дискуссий относительно правового обеспечения соблюдения и защиты прав различных слоев общества. Особенно такая проблема возникает при осуществлении конституционной и судебной реформы. В статье автор дает общую характеристику философско-правовым взглядам движения феминизма и Критики расовых теорий. Автор делает выводы о том, что принципом реализации правового плюрализма является обязательный учет интересов всех слоев населения в процессе законотворческой деятельности.
American philosophy of law in the XX century deals with most problematic issues in human rights. In the first place, these are women rights and rights of national minorities. In this connection, new philosophical movements appear, with their own interpretation of philosophy of pluralism within the pragmatic context. Among the most well-known of these movements, there were the feminist movements and the critical race theory. The philosophical heritage of the said movements is very important for development of legal systems in Ukraine and other European countries, as there are numerous discussions as to legal groundwork for ensuring and protecting rights of people from various strata of society. The problem becomes especially relevant when performing constitutional and judicial reforms. Gradually, the American society developed a feeling of the growing injustice in practices of legal decision-making concerning certain groups of population. The thesis of American laws applied and interpreted in the course of delivery of justice more and more in favor of dominating government agencies instead of precedents and principle-based requirements, was now viewed in a different way. Events and the nature of life and legal experience have been ignored before in regard to repressed groups of population, in particular all kinds of minorities and women, and now has become the subject of public attention. Analysis and discussion of issues related to this general problematics have become of much legal value. Requirements of both feminism and racial protests are directly opposed to the idea that one person or group has the right to impose their understanding of reality onto other people. This issue is of high priority in the U.S. public debate. Over the last 20 years the U.S. Congress and public forums held debates regarding "positive action" or "priority of minorities". No one would doubt nor deny that from the XVII to the XX century, Native Americans and African Americans were subject to most violent oppression within unjust legal standards of the dominant white culture. The agenda is now focused on the question of what legal instrument should be designed to fix the former injustice. In the debate on reparations, which resumed in the recent years, it was emphasized that in America there is a tradition of compensating damage to those who underwent a significant adverse impact as a result of brutal acts of violence, such as the recent payment of federal funds to the victims of 9/11. Yet these are one-time examples of restoration of social justice. The demands of new legal movements motivate the need to adopt and enforce laws that would set institutionally and systematically the legal and social equality of all members of society without exception. The heated topical discussions indicate that the situation is far from being solved in the positive way by now. Philosophers and lawyers, acting within the philosophy of feminism, base their research on pragmatic ideas by Jane Addams who has worked over 20 years with famous philosophers of law, John Dewy and G. Mid and actively participated in discussions on women's rights. The pragmatic turn in feminist movement was due to the fact that the ideas of pragmatism are a kind of the opposite to the dominant forms of traditional legal reasoning, the abuse of which contributed to unjust treatment and pressure exerted on marginal and disadvantaged strata of society, including preservation of legitimately justified restrictions on the rights of women and minorities of various types. Especially popular was the postulate of the inextricable link between theory and its practical implications of responsibility for them in reality, given the inevitable and often unpredictable changes in the social and political situation. Within the context of this postulate, social reality was perceived in terms of pluralistic variability, plasticity and capacity for positive change through human activity and intelligence. Feminists, as well as CRT, based their theory on deconstruction, i.e. rethinking the basic concepts of notions, not just on a superficial interpretation of their verbal expressions. Historically, the American feminist movement in the context of criticism of the legal system is divided into three periods, or waves, each characterized by a particular legal idea. The first wave dated to the beginning of the XX century and including not only American, but also European public, struggled for the rights of women to participate in electoral campaigns and achieved this goal. In this article the author gives a general characteristic to philosophical and legal views of the feminist movement and the critical race theory movement. The author concludes that the principle for implementation of legal pluralism must be obligatory consideration of interests of all strata of society in the course of law-making activities. Therefore, we can see that in the early XX century and in the middle of the XX century philosophical and legal understanding of the principles and forms of implementing pluralism were considered by philosophical movements in the context of two directions: 1. Protection of women's rights; 2. Protection of national minorities' rights. The basic postulate aimed at practical implementation of the principle of legal pluralism is consideration of rights and interests of all groups in creation of laws and regulations to prevent them from having discriminatory norms. This position must be taken into account in the course of legislative activity both in Ukraine and in other European countries.
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