Background: The association between county-level social capital indices (SCIs) and the 3 most commonly reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the United States is lacking. In this study, we determined and examined the association between 2 recently developed county-level SCIs (ie, Penn State Social Capital Index [PSSCI] vs United States Congress Social Capital Index [USCSCI]) and the 3 most commonly reported bacterial STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis) using spatial and nonspatial regression techniques. Methods: We assembled and analyzed multiyear (2012-2016) cross-sectional data on STIs and 2 SCIs (PSSCI vs USCSCI) on counties in all 48 contiguous states. We explored 2 nonspatial regression models (univariate and multiple generalized linear models) and 3 spatial regression models (spatial lag model, spatial error model, and the spatial autoregressive moving average model) for comparison. Results: Without exception, all the SCIs were negatively associated with all 3 STI morbidities. A 1-unit increase in the SCIs was associated with at least 9% (P < 0.001) decrease in each STI. Our test of the magnitude of the estimated associations indicated that the USCSCI was at least 2 times higher than the estimates for the PSSCI for all STIs (highest P value = 0.01). Conclusions: Overall, our results highlight the potential benefits of applying/incorporating social capital concepts to STI control and prevention efforts. In addition, our results suggest that for the purpose of planning, designing, and implementing effective STI control and prevention interventions/programs, understanding the communities' associational life (as indicated by the factors/data used to develop the USCSCI) may be important.
International journal of public health [Int J Public Health] 2019 Jan; Vol. 64 (1), pp. 59-66. Date of Electronic Publication: 2018 Jul 02.
Humans, Puerto Rico, United States, Environmental Health, Politics, and Refuse Disposal legislation jurisprudence
Objectives: Analyze the role of two members of the United States Congress, two private enterprises, and the government of Puerto Rico in the approval of the counterproductive law "Ban on the Deposit and Disposal of Coal Ash or Coal Combustion Residuals in Puerto Rico" (Law No. 40) in the framework of the four principles for environmental policy making. Methods: The gathered text documents were structured, reviewed, and coded using a content analysis protocol to produce coding categories and the final analysis. Results: Two US congressmen, apparently influenced by private enterprises, had a decisive role in the approval of Law No. 40 which failed to comply with any of the four principles for environmental public policy making. Conclusions: Puerto Rico's Government succumbed to the extortion strategy of two US congressmen and private economic interests, and finally approved Law No. 40 which mistreats the general public and the environmental health of two low socioeconomic status communities in the municipalities of Guayama and Peñuelas. This law has the potential to negatively affect public health and the environment island-wide.
Critchfield TS, Haley R, Sabo B, Colbert J, and Macropoulis G
Journal of applied behavior analysis [J Appl Behav Anal] 2003 Winter; Vol. 36 (4), pp. 465-86.
Female, Humans, Male, Public Relations, Social Environment, United States, Workplace, Efficiency, Government, Legislation as Topic, Motivation, Politics, and Reinforcement Schedule
It has been suggested that the work environment of the United States Congress bears similarity to a fixed-interval reinforcement schedule. Consistent with this notion, Weisberg and Waldrop (1972) described a positively accelerating pattern in annual congressional bill production (selected years from 1947 to 1968) that is reminiscent of the scalloped response pattern often attributed to fixed-interval schedules, but their analysis is now dated and does not bear on the functional relations that might yield scalloping. The present study described annual congressional bill production over a period of 52 years and empirically evaluated predictions derived from four hypotheses about the mechanisms that underlie scalloping. Scalloping occurred reliably in every year. The data supported several predictions about congressional productivity based on fixed-interval schedule performance, but did not consistently support any of three alternative accounts. These findings argue for the external validity of schedule-controlled operant behavior as measured in the laboratory. The present analysis also illustrates a largely overlooked role for applied behavior analysis: that of shedding light on the functional properties of behavior in uncontrolled settings of considerable interest to the public.
Schoeneman-Morris KA, Scalora MJ, Chang GH, Zimmerman WJ, and Garner Y
Journal of forensic sciences [J Forensic Sci] 2007 Sep; Vol. 52 (5), pp. 1142-7.
Age Factors, Humans, Mental Disorders psychology, Multivariate Analysis, United States, Correspondence as Topic, Dangerous Behavior, Electronic Mail, and Government
To better understand inappropriate correspondence sent to public officials, 301 letter cases and 99 email cases were randomly selected from the United States Capitol Police investigative case files and compared. Results indicate that letter writers were significantly more likely than emailers to exhibit indicators of serious mental illness (SMI), engage in target dispersion, use multiple methods of contact, and make a problematic approach toward their target. Emailers were significantly more likely than letter writers to focus on government concerns, use obscene language, and display disorganization in their writing. Also, letter writers tended to be significantly older, have more criminal history, and write longer communications. A multivariate model found that disorganization, SMI symptoms, problematic physical approach, and target dispersion significantly differentiated between the correspondence groups. The group differences illuminated by this study reveal that letter writers are engaging in behavior that is higher risk for problematic approach than are emailers.