Social Sciences, Other Social Sciences, Work Sciences, Samhällsvetenskap, Annan samhällsvetenskap, Arbetslivsstudier, Taylor, congress hearings, military industries, scientific management, strike, försvarsindustri, kongressförhör, strejk, Working Life Science, and Arbetsvetenskap
Essän bygger på en av Frederick Taylor författad uppsats, ”Government Efficiency” som han spred separat samma år som hans två mest kända skrifter publicerades, Shop Management och The Principles of Scientific Management. I ”Government Efficiency”, framför Taylor kritik mot det amerikanska försvarets gammaldags produktion av krigsmateriel och uppmanar till modernisering med hans system, scientific management. Ett försök med tidsstudier i ett gjuteri utlöste en strejk som fick massmedial uppmärksamhet med följdverkningar. Taylor fick vid flera tillfällen stå till svars inför den amerikanska kongressen. Då Taylor i sina två skrifter hävdat att en strejk aldrig inträffat på de arbetsplatser där han utvecklat scientific management, blev denna strejk särskilt uppseendeväckande. The essay is based on a separate paper written by Frederic Taylor, ”Government Efficiency”, He distributed it the same year as his two most familiar works were published, Shop Management och The Principles of Scientific Management. In ”Government Efficiency” Taylor criticizes the U.S. defence for its old-fashioned production of war munition. He suggests the production would be rendered more effective by applying his scientific management model. Time studies were started in one of the government military arsenals. A group of molders protested and went on strike. Immediate attention by mass media paved the way for public attention and hearings in the House of Representatives. As Taylor has asserted in his two books that a strike never occurred in the work places where he had introduced scientific management, this strike became especially sensational.
Ångström, Jan, Professor and Försvarshögskolan, Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Strategiavdelningen
Defence Studies. 18(3):318-338
Social Sciences, Other Social Sciences, Samhällsvetenskap, Annan samhällsvetenskap, defence planning, strategy, united states, future war, and Krigsvetenskap
This article addresses why the US in its military operations tends to focus on only one dimension in war – the military narrowly understood. More precisely, in the US case, its armed forces tend to be preoccupied with platforms and understand military capabilities as those that deliver death and destruction. I explain this one-sided understanding of the military dimension in war with how the US armed forces think about future war. How the US understands future war is, in turn, a reflection of how it organizes its long-term defense planning procedures. In particular, by approaching the concept of future as by and large structurally determined, a focus on platforms becomes natural. Investments in weapons systems, too, are more easily motivated to Congress since it is easier to attach a price to developing, for example, a new submarine than it is to attach a price to the cost of developing a military organization that is adaptive, learning and anticipating. The understanding of the future as something that happens whether you like it or not is particularly odd in the US context where of course a central tenet of the American dream is that the individual creates her own future.
Social Sciences, Other Social Sciences, Samhällsvetenskap, Annan samhällsvetenskap, Political Factors, time/timing, political rhetoric, Bush administration, 1991 Gulf war context, Time, article, War, Bush Administration, Rhetoric, Middle East, Statskunskap, and Political Science
Analyzes the political rhetoric about time during the 1991 Gulf war with Iraq. In public speeches by President George Bush & members of Congress before, during, & after the war, timing was a central concern. Here, this politics of time is discussed in terms of Cornelius Castoriadis's theory of imaginary institutions, & it is concluded that rhetorical definitions of the shape of time allow great flexibility for controlling the debate over the identity & projects of the nation. The war created uncertainty about historical change, which was allayed by rhetorical symbols upholding national stability & continuity. The rhetorical control of time & national projects were ways to exclude contradictory experiences & voices, especially during wartime. However, when the war ended, the real contents of time could no longer be repressed, & presidential rhetoric of time failed to organize governmental projects on the home front.