Social Sciences, Other Social Sciences, Work Sciences, Samhällsvetenskap, Annan samhällsvetenskap, Arbetslivsstudier, Taylor, congress hearings, military industries, scientific management, strike, försvarsindustri, kongressförhör, strejk, Working Life Science, and Arbetsvetenskap
Essän bygger på en av Frederick Taylor författad uppsats, ”Government Efficiency” som han spred separat samma år som hans två mest kända skrifter publicerades, Shop Management och The Principles of Scientific Management. I ”Government Efficiency”, framför Taylor kritik mot det amerikanska försvarets gammaldags produktion av krigsmateriel och uppmanar till modernisering med hans system, scientific management. Ett försök med tidsstudier i ett gjuteri utlöste en strejk som fick massmedial uppmärksamhet med följdverkningar. Taylor fick vid flera tillfällen stå till svars inför den amerikanska kongressen. Då Taylor i sina två skrifter hävdat att en strejk aldrig inträffat på de arbetsplatser där han utvecklat scientific management, blev denna strejk särskilt uppseendeväckande. The essay is based on a separate paper written by Frederic Taylor, ”Government Efficiency”, He distributed it the same year as his two most familiar works were published, Shop Management och The Principles of Scientific Management. In ”Government Efficiency” Taylor criticizes the U.S. defence for its old-fashioned production of war munition. He suggests the production would be rendered more effective by applying his scientific management model. Time studies were started in one of the government military arsenals. A group of molders protested and went on strike. Immediate attention by mass media paved the way for public attention and hearings in the House of Representatives. As Taylor has asserted in his two books that a strike never occurred in the work places where he had introduced scientific management, this strike became especially sensational.
Carlson, Benny, Lunds universitet, Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen, and Lund University, Department of Economic History
Historisk Tidskrift. 126(2):215-235
Kerstin Hesselgren, Mary von Kleeck, IRI, social engineering, scientific management, industrial relations, economic planning, Samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomi och näringsliv, Ekonomisk historia, Social Sciences, Economics and Business, and Economic History
The International Industrial Relations Institute (IRI) was established in 1925 at a congress of welfare and personnel workers in Holland. At first the organisation focused attention on scientific management and industrial relations but during the Great Depression its activities began to centre upon economic planning. The IRI was dominated by Mary van Kleeck from the United States and its radicalisation reflected her development into a dedicated advocate of Soviet style planning.One of the initiators of the IRI was a Swedish industrial welfare worker and its first president was Kerstin Hesselgren, Sweden’s first female factory inspector and member of parliament. The organisation had about 20 Swedish members around 1930 – mostly female personnel or welfare workers, factory inspectors, trade union activists and a few male managing directors – but over the next couple of years these fell away.The story of Hesselgren, van Kleeck and the IRI has at least two interesting aspects. Firstly, it reflects the transformation of social engineering from an issue of industrial relations to one of economic planning. Secondly, it tells us something about the American influence on Sweden in the area of industrial relations.The more precise question to be answered is why a number of Swedes first joined and then abandoned the IRI.The article argues that Hesselgren had most likely been impressed by van Kleeck before the forming of the IRI and that she brought her fellow Swedes with her into the organisation. However, the Swedes could not follow van Kleeck when she became an advocate for Soviet style planning.