Engineering Systems Division. and System Design and Management Program.
Stress, both individual and organizational, appears to be an increasing problem in any society, and more so in organizations. It already is taking a significant toll on corporate and national levels. Slow recovering economy and pressures on bottom lines, especially for financially constrained organizations, further emphasize the problem and call for new solutions. This paper explores two aspects of stress - individual and organizational. Our goal was to provide a systems dynamic framework that organizations, as well as individuals, can use to improve the understanding of the physiological and psychological stress loads, as well as understand their relationship to organizational key performance indicators. Like many natural systems, human body is the ultimate limited system. The main benefit of the proposed framework will be the ability to monitor cumulative variables of the functional capacity of human body to process stressors, and the mental and emotional capacity of employees to carry out their duties. by Davit Tadevosyan. Thesis: S.M. in Engineering and Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Engineering Systems Division, System Design and Management Program, 2014. Cataloged from PDF version of thesis. Includes bibliographical references (pages 102-106).
Linnarsson, Magnus and Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska institutionen
Scandinavian Journal of History. 37(3):296-316
Humanities, History and Archaeology, History, Humaniora, Historia och arkeologi, Historia, Sweden, state, administration, postal service, early modern, lease contract, transaction costs, political transaction costs, organizational history, and historia
This article deals with the privatization of the Swedish postal service in the 1660s. In 1663 the Swedish state signed a lease contract for the management of the kingdom's postal service, handing over the leadership of the post to the nobleman Johan von Beijer. The purpose of this article is to show how the early modern Swedish state used private alternatives in executing its undertakings. An analysis of Johan von Beijer's lease contract will serve as an illuminating example of what such a private alternative might be. In order to answer the question of what influenced the choice of organization form, transaction cost theory is applied. Based on the analysis of the contract, and the negotiations between Beijer and the state, this article is able to complement and show the nuances of how the early modern Swedish state functioned in practice.
碩士 國立中正大學 戰略暨國際事務研究所 103 AbstractThe modern postal system originated in Britain. After the World War II, the rise of Keynesianism which resulted in government intervention in economic activities led to the emgergence of state-run businesses, and the state-run businesses held many important industries such as iron and steel, energy, water and postal service, a labor-intensive industry.In the 1980s, worldwide stagnation and then fiscal deficit in many countries caused the advocacy of privatization, as exemplified by the United Kingdom and the United States. Through privatization, the governments can both cut down on bureacracy and reduce the expenditure on public servants which also improves the administrative effectiveness and reduce fiscal deficit.In 2001, Japan Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi promoted a series of postal service reforms to reduce governmental organization and fiscal deficit, both of them were influenced by neo-liberalism. And in 2005, the reform was officially launched. During the process of reform, what has been changed and whether the goals are achieved or not is the main course of this essay.The Chunghwa Post in Taiwan has been through a series of reforms under the privatization policy as well. Whether the reforms are in common, the reason why the government of Taiwan want to conduct privatization both in general and in postal service, the expected achievements and the stalemate of privatization in Taiwan lack for in-depth analysis and further elaboration in comparison to Japan. We can also find other issues like organizational structure, the operational right of mails, the differences between two employment systems and the lack of thoroughness in privatization in Taiwan. If the government contiues to carry out this policy in the future, they are worthy of further study and observation as wellKeywords: Neo-liberalism, Privatization, Public utilities, Japan's postal service reform, Taiwan.
碩士 嘉南藥理大學 職業安全衛生系 104 AbstractResearch purposes : This study amined to examined the security leadership dimensions fit, the security attitudes dimension of SEM, the leadership assessment, the verification of safety and security relationship by using the confirmatory factor analysis method (CFA).Research methods : This research took Tainan post office 340 Staff study as the subjects. The researcher of this study referred to relevant literatures and processed the expert content validity, dimension of consolidation and modification of the title to finalize the questionnaires. The researchers on-site questionnaire survey was utilized in this study, and SPSS 21.0 Amos 21.0 software faciliated the analysis of dimension of reliability of the questionnaire (Cronbach's α) .8 ~ .9 In between, the variable nature of correlation analysis, normality test, validation factor analysis (CFA), the combination of reliability, the average variance extracted, psychometric analysis, and structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis.Results and discussion : The analysis revealed the security leadership and security of postal employees of structural equation modeling analysis of the fit chi-square/df =1.826 < 3 , GFI = .928 > .9 , AGFI = .902 > .9 , TLI(NNFI) = .971 > .9 CFI = .976 > .9 , RMSEA = .052 < .08 , CN = 204 > 200 , and the results indicated the fit of the model is within the ideal range and also reached general academic requirements. In addition, the result showed the positive correlation and significatn difference between security leadership and security (P < .05). Hence, the security leadership of supervisors is the key factor that affects employee’s safety attitudes and cognition.Conclusions and recommendations : The research results can be taken to improve the postal service safety leadership and security attitudes as reference. A superviosr’s security leadership can rectify the staff safety attitudes and cognition, and thereby reduce the occurrence of accidents. Therefore, the postal supervisor safety leadership should be takens as a model to instruct time management and take care of the staff properly, so that emplyees can recognize the importance of security and enhance the staff safety for deceasing the occurrence of vocational occupational accident. Moreover, the main purpose of this study is to pursue the ultimate goal of zero level disasters in any future working environment..
Logistik, Optimering, Ruttplanering, and Distribution
Internposten inom Norrköpings kommun analyserades för att utvärdera om Tekniska kontoret kunde ta över planering och distribution av internposten i egen regi och därmed inte längre vara beroende av en extern part.
The United States Postal Service continues to face difficult financial conditions, due primarily to electronic diversion of mail volume. The largest component of the Postal Service's cost structure is labor, with retirement benefits representing a significant portion of those costs. This thesis provides a historical retrospective of the development of the pension system that the Postal Service currently participates in, and assesses the impact that the pension system has had on the Postal Service through history. The ultimate objective of this thesis is to study the United States Postal Service pension system as it relates to its current obligations to the United States federal government, provide a review of alternative pension arrangements operating in other sectors, and analyze the leading alternatives as they apply to the Postal Service to understand their potential impact on the finances of the United States Postal Service. Two simulations models are developed in the study, based on an analysis of the current workforce, historical and projected retirement patterns, and the current pension contribution profiles of workers. The models are used to assess the impact of various plan designs on the Postal Service's cost structure, and on a typical individual employee's post-retirement income. by Luke Thomas Grossmann. Thesis (S.M. in Management)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sloan School of Management, 2013. "June 2013." Cataloged from PDF version of thesis. Includes bibliographical references (p. 113-117).
Management, Organization Theory, Public Administration, Postal Service, Public Contracting, and Transaction Cost Economic
This dissertation studies the contracting policies and practices taking place in the United States Postal Service during the last 12 years. Using the Value-Institution-Market framework, the dissertation comes to two important findings. First, at the macro level, values and institutions factors frame the contracting environment and changes in each of these categories caused the overall aggregate contracting levels to fluctuate over certain periods of time. Second, at the micro level, in essence, it is the differences in the market factors across activities that explain, for the most part, their comparative variations of contracting levels. These findings have important implications. First, core competences of the USPS which are very politically important should be performed both by internal resources and vendors, but internal resources must play the main role. This is to safeguard that public values are sustained. Second, non-core areas – which are less politically important, less asset-specific, and have more potential vendors – should be outsourced. This is to economize costs while improve organizational performance.
碩士 玄奘大學 企業管理學系碩士班 101 To increase the customer satisfaction, how to identify the influencing factors, evaluate the level of importance on factors, and allocate the limited resources to factors based on important level is one of the development directions in service industry. This study categorizes the determinants of customer satisfaction of postal service by using tetraclass model. The results show that (1) Plus service elements include: good attitude in rush hour at noon or off the duty, treating every customer well, dispatching customer complaints quickly, responding customer questions, and providing the umbrella in a rainy day. (2) There is no any factor classified as the key service. (3) Basic service elements contain: good service attitudes, service is trustworthy, flexible ability of problem solving, understanding customer needs, taking customer questions seriously, high willingness to serve customer, clean and tidy appearance of service personnel, giving customer a sense of security in the process, assisting illiterate customer, good communication skills, and giving customer correct change. (4) Secondary service elements include: having expertise, processing quickly and correctly, and protecting customer privacy. According to the results, this study suggests that the first priority of improving factors is the basic service elements, secondly plus service elements, and the last secondary service elements. The postal service supervisor may allocate the resource to enhance service elements based on the priority so as to increase customer satisfaction.
This is a history of the mechanisation programme in the British postal service in the 1960s and 1970s, providing a record of the first six years of the network restructuring project known as the Letter Post Plan. This involved the introduction of automated sorting and coding machines and the creation of large, mechanised sorting offices. This brought fundamental changes to mail operations and was the subject of much disagreement and discussion within the industry. The key groups involved were unions, management and engineers, and their roles are considered through planning, negotiation and implementation of the plan. The central theme of the thesis is the interrelation of new technology and industrial relations. The main issues addressed include: the reasons for commissioning the plan in 1969; the preparations made for organisational change including R&D, financial modelling, training and consultation; the effects of the political and economic troubles of the 1970s; the introduction of new consultation arrangements following an embargo on new technology by the Union of Post Office Workers in 1972; and the course of negotiations which led to agreement upon a revised plan in 1975. The Post Office has been criticised over the introduction of mechanisation in this period, including charges of naive management, inadequate engineering and union obstruction. The limited attention the subject has received from historians has echoed this. This thesis contests this interpretation by arguing that the Post Office deserves more credit for the design and implementation of the plan, and that its problems were largely caused by external political and economic forces. It offers a detailed account of the workings of the postal service and the political and technical challenges faced in changing its operations, documenting several progressive and constructive aspects of this process. This therefore contributes to a historiographical reinterpretation of 1970s industrial politics and questions the negative portrayal of the nationalised industries in this period. The research is based primarily on the archival holdings of the British Postal Museum & Archive in London, including policy papers and board minutes, scientific and technical reports, union newspapers and publications, diagrams, photographs and correspondence. Other resources include the Modern Record Centre in Warwick, the National Archives, the works of modern postal historians and literature in the history of science, technology, labour and twentieth century public enterprise.
Following the worst financial crisis since the great depression, the United States has experienced three consecutive years of unemployment above 8%. The current economic situation has pushed the economy to the forefront of the 2012 Presidential election. At the heart this partisan economic debate is the issue regarding the size of the Federal Government. The objective of this thesis is not to debate the politics of how big the Federal Government should or should not be. I merely point to the current economic situation and the partisan debate because I believe they are masking a potential issue which will impact the efficiency and quality of the services provided by the Federal Government - the issue of employee retention. Specifically, this thesis focuses on the voluntary turnover of top performing talent. Regardless of one's beliefs regarding the size the Federal Government or what role it should play, it is hard to debate the need to employ talented, productive, and innovative leaders within the government. In this regard, the Federal Government is no different than any private business. As the world shrinks and technology rapidly changes how we live and work, the demands of managing a business or running a government have become increasingly complex. This thesis uses the United States Postal Service (USPS) as a case study to illustrate some of the employee retention challenges facing the Federal Government and how the agency has implemented policies and strategies to improve its ability to retain employees. During this difficult time in its history, it is increasingly important to attract and retain talented employees. The USPS is now facing financial uncertainty, a rapidly changing marketplace, and intense competition from the private sector for its top talent. This thesis will attempt to reconcile these and many other factors impacting turnover in the USPS and highlight what USPS is doing and recommend potential actions to improve employee retention. by Jeffrey Carroll Williamson. Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sloan School of Management, 2012. Cataloged from PDF version of thesis. Includes bibliographical references (p. 115-117).
This thesis is about the effects of changing customer preferences on the United States Postal Service's retail network and offers a process for wider adoption of its current retail partnership program. The Contract Postal Unit (CPU) program represents 10 percent of the Postal Service's current outlets. This is a form of franchising. This thesis reviews franchising theory and highlights key research in the area to develop a business framework. Since many of the foreign posts have also been experimenting with operations similar to the CPU program, the franchising programs of four European posts are reviewed. I conclude by offering an approach that the Postal Service may use to look at how and when its customers use its products and services at their retail outlets and provide several recommendations that the Postal Service might consider if and when the Contract Postal Unit program is expanded. by Kelly M. Sigmon. Thesis (M.B.A.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sloan School of Management, 2010. Cataloged from PDF version of thesis. Includes bibliographical references (p. 71-75).
Bladh, Mats, Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten, and Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring
Journal of interdisciplinary economics. 12(3):229-248
Social Sciences, Other Social Sciences, Social Sciences Interdisciplinary, Samhällsvetenskap, Annan samhällsvetenskap, Tvärvetenskapliga studier inom samhällsvetenskap, INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH AREAS, and TVÄRVETENSKAPLIGA FORSKNINGSOMRÅDEN
碩士 玄奘大學 國際企業學系碩士班 97 The Chinese postal service has such multiple excellent specialties as strong force, financial resources, manpower, etc. However, they still unable to expand on the business scope because not only some characteristics of government undertaking were reserved, but also they be limited with postal law and decree. The postal service must be corporatized as soon as possible, and would get rid of heavy and complicated decree restrain from traditional lows. After privatization, the manage idea and institutional framework were brought into to postal system, and made them more efficient in any application. For example, the interest income, premium income and regain premium grow up 10.6% by privatization. Human resources and duty level were reduced from 19 duties to 15 and organization was simplified to three levels, too. By this way, the simplificative organization makes the decision easily. But they still have some problem need to solve. First, the unequal treatment of personnel stage make improper distribution between original manpower and enter newly personnel reforming system. A lot of original staffs still has government functionary's psychologies, and the working attitude and efficiency were pending improve. In order to reach it, they need to redesign the performance and assess the method as soon as possible. To utilize the elasticity workforce at the same time could changed the attitudes of staff, they could reach the purpose that the postal performance grow up.
碩士 淡江大學 日本研究所碩士在職專班 97 Thanks to the encouragement of the Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi, the Japanese Postal Service was privatized on October 1st, 2007. The transition takes about 10 years for the privatization process to full effect, from 2007 to 2017. Ever since the very early stage of the privatization, the load of parcel service has been doubled. However, the intense competition among the Japanese Postal Service and some of the leading Home Delivery Service companies has caused a tremendous decrease in profits. These private companies, such as Da-Ho Transport Company, accused the Japanese Postal Service of its monopoly on market share, which consequently deprived other competitors of their rights of surviving on the market.This research, therefore, intends to study the competition among the Japanese Postal Service and a few private Home Delivery Service companies. Moreover, the study shows the impact on these private companies in terms of how they changed their delivering strategies after the privatization of Japanese Postal Service. The conclusions drawn from this study indicate that governmental interference should be prudent, and the government should provide more capital to ensure the quality of the postal service in remote areas. In addition, for the prospects of delivering services, intense competition should be avoided if these companies want to lower the cost and enhance the quality of their services.