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Aged, Biomechanical Phenomena, Cross-Sectional Studies, Female, Gait, Humans, Male, Pressure, Reproducibility of Results, Foot physiology, and Walking physiology
Introduction: Repeatability and variability of the plantar pressure during walking are important components in the clinical assessment of the elderly. However, there is a lack of information on the uniformity of plantar pressure patterns in the elderly.
Objective: To analyze the repeatability and variability in plantar pressure considering mean, peak and asymmetries during aged gait.
Methods: Plantar pressure was monitored in four different days for ten elderly subjects (5 female), with mean±standard-deviation age of 73±6 years, walking barefoot at preferred speed. Data were compared between steps for each day and between different days.
Results: Mean and peak plantar pressure values were similar between the different days of evaluation. Asymmetry indexes were similar between the different days evaluated.
Conclusion: Plantar pressure presented a consistent pattern in the elderly. However, the asymmetry indexes observed suggest that the elderly are exposed to repetitive asymmetric loading during locomotion. Such result requires further investigation, especially concerning the role of these asymmetries for development of articular injuries.
(Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.)
Aged, Biomechanical Phenomena, Female, Humans, Male, Pressure, Foot physiopathology, Osteoarthritis, Knee physiopathology, and Walking Speed
Objective: Changing gait speed is a common strategy to manipulate exercise intensity during physical exercise, but may elicit higher impact forces and consequent joint loading. Here we analyzed the effects of increasing walking velocity on plantar pressure and asymmetries in elderly with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Our hypothesis was that the contralateral limb could receive higher loading compared to the OA limb in the different walking speeds tested.
Methods: Twelve elderly with unilateral knee OA walked at different self-selected speeds along a 10 m pass way stepping on an instrumented mat for measurement of plantar pressure at preferred, slow and fast gait speeds. Five steps were recorded for each speed. Plantar pressure data were compared between the speeds and legs.
Results: speeds were significantly different between them (p<0.05). Mean and peak plantar pressure increased when speed changed from slow to fast (p<0.05). Velocity of the center of pressure increased and the single stance time decreased when walk speed was increased (p<0.05). Any asymmetries were observed.
Conclusion: Increasing gait speed from slow to fast in subjects with unilateral knee OA significantly affected variables of plantar pressure, but asymmetries between committed and contralateral leg were not detected.
(Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.)
Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Cadaver, Female, Humans, Ligaments, Articular physiopathology, Male, Carpal Joints, Joint Instability physiopathology, Lunate Bone, Muscle, Skeletal physiopathology, Scaphoid Bone, and Wrist Joint
Purpose: As long as the neuromuscular stabilizers are intact, a lesion of the scapholunate ligament may or may not progress to a carpal instability. The mechanisms by which the muscles compensate this defect are not very well known. We designed an experimental study with the aim of clarifying these mechanisms.
Material and Method: Using 10 fresh wrists, with no pre-existing lesions, we studied the movements of the scaphoid, triquetrum and capitate produced by the isometrical loading of the muscles which move the wrist, each of them isolated or combined, before and after cutting off the scapholunate ligaments. To do this, we placed sensors in each of these bones and used the Fastrack system to record these movements.
Results: The simultaneous loading of the muscles of the wrist produce rotational movements in flexion and supination of the proximal carpal row. After cutting off the scapholunate ligaments, the scaphoid rotates in pronation and flexion, while the triquetrum rotates in pronation and extension. In this situation of a scapholunate lesion, the muscles that worsen the carpal dexasation are the extensor carpi ulnaris and flexor carpi ulnaris. On the other hand, the isolated loading of the radial muscles reduce the scapholunate diastasis, thus improving the carpal alignment.
Conclusion: In dynamic scapholunate instabilities, isometric contraction of the ulnar carpal muscles must be avoided, as it promotes the scapholunate diastasis. The rest of the muscles have the opposite effect, stabilizing the carpus when primary stabilizers have failed.
(Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.)
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