Harrington G, Kalaev D, Yildiz B, Sasaki K, Perry NH, and Tuller HL
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces [ACS Appl Mater Interfaces] 2019 Aug 21. Date of Electronic Publication: 2019 Aug 21.
The oxygen deficiency or excess, as reflected in the non-stoichiometry of oxide films, plays a crucial role in their functional properties for applications such as micro-solid oxide fuel cells, catalysis, sensors, ferroelectrics, and memristors. High concentrations of oxygen vacancies may be beneficial or detrimental according to the application, and hence there is interest in controlling the oxygen content of films without resorting to compositional changes. Here, we demonstrate that substantial changes in the non-stoichiometry of Pr0.1Ce0.9O2-δ (PCO), a model mixed ionic electronic conductor, can be achieved by fabricating multilayers with another, relatively inert material, SrTiO3 (STO). We fabricated heterostructures using pulsed laser deposition, keeping the total thickness of PCO and STO constant while varying the number of layers and thickness or each individual layer, to probe the effects of the PCO/STO interfaces. Conductivity measurements as a function of oxygen partial pressure (PO2) and temperature showed a significant weakening of the PO2 dependence compared to bulk PCO which scaled with the density of interfaces. We confirmed that this change was due to variations in non-stoichiometry, by optical transmission measurements, and show that the lower oxygen content is consistent with a decrease in the effective oxygen reduction enthalpy of PCO. These results exemplify the dramatic differences in properties between films and their bulk counterparts, achievable by interface engineering, and provide generalised insight into tailoring the properties of mixed ionic electronic conductors at the nanoscale.
Chen T, Harrington GF, Masood J, Sasaki K, and Perry NH
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces [ACS Appl Mater Interfaces] 2019 Mar 06; Vol. 11 (9), pp. 9102-9116. Date of Electronic Publication: 2019 Feb 20.
The oxygen surface exchange kinetics of mixed ionic and electronic conducting oxides (MIECs) play a critical role in the efficiency of intermediate-to-high-temperature electrochemical devices. Although there is increasing interest in low-temperature preparation of MIEC thin films, the impact of the resultant varied degrees of crystallinity on the surface exchange kinetics has not been widely investigated. Here, we probe the effect of crystallization on oxygen surface exchange kinetics in situ, by applying an optical transmission relaxation (OTR) approach during annealing of amorphous films. OTR enables contact-free, in situ, and continuous quantification of the oxygen surface exchange coefficient ( kchem); we previously applied it to Pr xCe1- xO2-δ and SrTi1- xFe xO3-δ thin films. In this work, the OTR approach was successfully extended to other mixed conducting thin film compositions for the first time (i.e., perovskite SrTi0.65Co0.35O3-δ and Ruddlesden-Popper Sr2Ti0.65Fe0.35O4±δ), as well as to Pr0.1Ce0.9O2-δ, enabling quantification of the kchem of their native surfaces and comparison of the behavior of films with different final crystal structures. All thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition at 25 or 700-800 °C and subject to subsequent thermal treatments with simultaneous OTR monitoring of kchem. The surface roughness, grain size, and crystallinity were evaluated by scanning probe microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Fluorite Pr0.1Ce0.9O2-δ films grown at 25 °C did not exhibit an increase in kchem after annealing, as they were already crystalline as grown at 25 °C. For all other compositions, OTR enabled in situ observation of both the crystallization process and the emergence of rapid surface exchange kinetics immediately upon crystallization. Perovskite SrTi0.65Co0.35O3-δ and Ruddlesden-Popper Sr2Ti0.65Fe0.35O4±δ thin films grown at 25 °C exhibited at least 1-2 orders of magnitude enhanced kchem after annealing compared with highly crystalline thin films grown at 800 °C, indicating the benefits of in situ crystallization.
Pergolesi D, Gilardi E, Fabbri E, Roddatis V, Harrington GF, Lippert T, Kilner JA, and Traversa E
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces [ACS Appl Mater Interfaces] 2018 Apr 25; Vol. 10 (16), pp. 14160-14169. Date of Electronic Publication: 2018 Apr 16.
Multilayered heterostructures of Ce0.85Sm0.15O2-δ and Y0.16Zr0.92O2-δ of a high crystallographic quality were fabricated on (001)-oriented MgO single crystal substrates. Keeping the total thickness of the heterostructures constant, the number of ceria-zirconia bilayers was increased while reducing the thickness of each layer. At each interface Ce was found primarily in the reduced, 3+ oxidation state in a layer extending about 2 nm from the interface. Concurrently, the conductivity decreased as the thickness of the layers was reduced, suggesting a progressive confinement of the charge transport along the YSZ layers. The comparative analysis of the in-plane electrical characterization suggests that the contribution to the total electrical conductivity of these interfacial regions is negligible. For the smallest layer thickness of 2 nm the doped ceria layers are electrically insulating and the ionic transport only occurs through the zirconia layers. This is explained in terms of a reduced mobility of the oxygen vacancies in the highly reduced ceria.
Zitolo A, Ranjbar-Sahraie N, Mineva T, Li J, Jia Q, Stamatin S, Harrington GF, Lyth SM, Krtil P, Mukerjee S, Fonda E, and Jaouen F
Nature Communications [Nat Commun] 2017 Oct 16; Vol. 8 (1), pp. 957. Date of Electronic Publication: 2017 Oct 16.
Single-atom catalysts with full utilization of metal centers can bridge the gap between molecular and solid-state catalysis. Metal-nitrogen-carbon materials prepared via pyrolysis are promising single-atom catalysts but often also comprise metallic particles. Here, we pyrolytically synthesize a Co-N-C material only comprising atomically dispersed cobalt ions and identify with X-ray absorption spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility measurements and density functional theory the structure and electronic state of three porphyrinic moieties, CoN4C12, CoN3C10,porp and CoN2C5. The O2 electro-reduction and operando X-ray absorption response are measured in acidic medium on Co-N-C and compared to those of a Fe-N-C catalyst prepared similarly. We show that cobalt moieties are unmodified from 0.0 to 1.0 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode, while Fe-based moieties experience structural and electronic-state changes. On the basis of density functional theory analysis and established relationships between redox potential and O2-adsorption strength, we conclude that cobalt-based moieties bind O2 too weakly for efficient O2 reduction.Nitrogen-doped carbon materials with atomically dispersed iron or cobalt are promising for catalytic use. Here, the authors show that cobalt moieties have a higher redox potential, bind oxygen more weakly and are less active toward oxygen reduction than their iron counterpart, despite similar coordination.
Harrington GF, Cavallaro A, McComb DW, Skinner SJ, and Kilner JA
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP [Phys Chem Chem Phys] 2017 Jun 07; Vol. 19 (22), pp. 14319-14336.
Enhanced conductivity in YSZ films has been of substantial interest over the last decade. In this paper we examine the effects of substrate lattice mismatch and film thickness on the strain in YSZ films and the resultant effect on the conductivity. 8 mol% YSZ films have been grown on MgO, Al2O3, LAO and NGO substrates, thereby controlling the lattice mismatch at the film/substrate interface. The thickness of the films was varied to probe the interfacial contribution to the transport properties, as measured by impedance spectroscopy and tracer diffusion. No enhancement in the transport properties of any of the films was found over single crystal values, and instead the effects of lattice strain were found to be minimal. The interfaces of all films were more resistive due to a heterogeneous distribution of grain boundaries, and no evidence for enhanced transport down dislocations was found.
Cavallaro A, Harrington GF, Skinner SJ, and Kilner JA
Nanoscale [Nanoscale] 2014 Jul 07; Vol. 6 (13), pp. 7263-73.
In this work the effect of gas atmosphere on the surface termination reconstruction of single crystal NdGaO3 (110) (NGO) during thermal annealing was analyzed. Using Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) it has been possible to study the chemical composition of the first atomic layer of treated NGO single crystal samples. NGO has been analyzed both as-received and after a specific thermal treatment at 1000 °C under different gas fluxes (argon, nitrogen, static air, synthetic air, nitrogen plus 5% hydrogen and wet synthetic air respectively). Thermal annealing of perovskite single crystals, as already reported in the literature, is used to obtain a fully A-cation surface termination. Nevertheless the effect of the gas-atmosphere on this process has not been previously reported. By the use of sequential low energy Ar(+) sputtering combined with the primary ion LEIS analysis, the reconstruction of the outermost atomic layers has allowed the clarification of the mechanism of NGO neodymium surface enrichment. It is proposed that the gallium at the surface is submitted to a reduction/evaporation mechanism caused by low oxygen partial pressure and/or high water pressure in the vector gas. Below the first surface atomic layers of an as-received NGO single-crystal a gallium-rich phase has also been observed.
Pylypiw HM Jr, Harrington GW, Kozeniauskas R, and Diaz D
Journal Of Food Protection [J Food Prot] 1992 Mar; Vol. 55 (3), pp. 218-219.
Daminozide (Alar) was found to produce N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrodimethylamine (NITDMA) when treated with nitrite in acidic solution. Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), the hydrolysis product of Daminozide, gave the same products. Use of 15N-nitrite and 15N-Daminozide showed that both the nitroso group of NDMA and the nitro group of NITDMA arise from the nitrite.