Objectives: This study aimed to determine the relationship between glycaemic control and carotid atherosclerotic disease among patients with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS). Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study took place in the Neurology Department of King Fahad Hospital of University, Khobar, Saudi Arabia, from April to October 2017. Data were collected from the medical records of 244 patients with a diagnosis of AIS confirmed by computed tomography. Doppler ultrasounds of the carotid artery were performed to determine the presence of increased carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and plaques. Results: Significantly higher mean glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were noted in cases with high CIMT values (P = 0.002), but not in cases with carotid plaques (P = 0.360). In addition, there was a significant association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and high CIMT (P = 0.045), but not with carotid plaques (P = 0.075). Finally, while dyslipidaemia and age were independently correlated with high CIMT values (P = 0.034 and <0.001, respectively) and carotid plaques (P <0.001 each), no independent relationships were noted in terms of gender and other risk factors like DM, hypertension and smoking (P >0.050 each). Conclusion: High HbA1c levels were associated with high CIMT values, but not with carotid plaques. Therefore, HbA1c levels may be useful as an indirect marker of the initial stages of carotid artery atherosclerosis.
Objective: To assess the burden and describe the pattern of neurological disorders requiring admissions in a teaching hospital of Al Khobar. Methods: This is a retrospective, cross sectional study, carried out in the Neurology Department of King Fahd Hospital of the University from January 2009 to December 2016. Neurological disorders were grouped as ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, transient ischemic attack, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, seizure disorders, central nervous system infection, multiple sclerosis, neuropathies, myopathies, headache, dementia and miscellaneous group. Data was entered and analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 22.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Results: The records of 1,317 patients admitted under Neurology Service were analyzed. Out of that, 740 (56.2%) were male and 577 (43.8%) were female. Mean age was 46.9+\-24 years (mean+\-standard deviation). Ischemic stroke was the most common diagnosis (32%) followed by seizures (20%). Multiple sclerosis accounted for around 8% and central nervous system infections 5% of neurological admission. Conclusion: Ischemic stroke was found to be the most common etiology for hospitalization in our study. The results of our study are similar to previous literature. An urgent need to control major risk factors such as diabetes and hypertension is warranted to minimize the burden of stroke.
AboAlSamh DK, Abulaban AA, Khatri IA, and Al-Khathaami AM
Neurosciences (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) [Neurosciences (Riyadh)] 2017 Oct; Vol. 22 (4), pp. 320-324.
Adult, Aged, Cohort Studies, Female, Glomerular Filtration Rate physiology, Humans, Kidney Diseases diagnosis, Male, Middle Aged, Odds Ratio, Predictive Value of Tests, Risk Factors, Saudi Arabia epidemiology, Kidney Diseases etiology, Stroke complications, and Stroke diagnosis
Objective: To explore if renal dysfunction in terms of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) can be considered a risk factor for stroke outcomes. Methods: The study population consisted of adults diagnosed with acute stroke admitted to the King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between 2012 and 2015. Data was collected by chart review. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation was used to estimate GFR. Patients were classified into 2 eGFR categories: eGFR more than 60 (normal) and eGFR less than or equal 60 (low). Results: A total of 727 patients were studied of whom 596 (82%) had normal eGFR and 131 (18%) had low eGFR. There were more males (68.5%). Ischemic strokes were more prevalent (87.2%). Urinary tract infections were more likely to occur in the low eGFR group (OR=2.047, 95% CI=1.024 - 4.093). They were also significantly more likely to die during admission (OR=3.772, 95% CI=1.609-8.844). There was a statistically significant degree of disability reflected by higher mRS (p=0.010) as well as higher post-stroke National Institute of Health Stroke Score scores in the low eGFR group (p=0.011). Conclusion: Estimated glomerular filtration rate is a possible predictor of stroke severity, disability and mortality.