BROWN marmorated stink bug, PREDATION, HEMIPTERA, STINKBUGS, PARASITISM, and LAURACEAE
The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a polyphagous pest that disperses from non-crop host plants into crops in search of food. Sassafras trees (Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees; Lauraceae) are found commonly in woodland habitats in the southeastern US and may therefore be a potential host. The main objective of this 2-yr study was to determine if sassafras serves as a host plant for this pest in woodland habitats adjacent to crops in Prattville, Alabama, and Byron, Georgia, USA. Each yr pheromone-baited traps were deployed in the canopy of sassafras trees to capture H. halys. We also evaluated parasitism and predation of H. halys sentinel egg masses by native parasitoids and predators in sassafras. Halyomorpha halys adult males and females as well as second through fifth instars were captured in traps and observed in sassafras trees over the season at both locations each yr of the study. Trissolcus euschisti Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) (67.7%) and Anastatus reduvii (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) (18.3%) were the primary parasitoid species that emerged from H. halys sentinel egg masses. Stylet sucking (62.3%) and chewing (32.0%) were the primary types of predation on H. halys eggs. We conclude that sassafras is a reproductive host plant for H. halys, and native natural enemies prey on and parasitize H. halys egg masses in this host plant. La chinche hedionda invasora marrón marmolada, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), es una plaga polífaga que se dispersa de plantas hospedantes no cultivadas a los cultivos en busca de alimento. Se les encuentran en los árboles de sasafrás (Sassafras albidum [Nutt.] Nees; Lauraceae) comúnmente en hábitats boscosos del sureste de los EE. UU. y por lo tanto este puede ser un hospedero potencial. El objetivo principal de este estudio de 2 años fue determinar si el sasafrás sirve como planta hospedera para esta plaga en hábitats boscosos adyacentes a cultivos en Prattville, Alabama, y Byron, Georgia, EE. UU. Cada año, se colocaron trampas cebadas con feromonas en el dosel de los árboles de sasafrás para capturar H. halys. También evaluamos el parasitismo y la depredación de masas de huevos centinela de H. halys por parasitoides nativos y depredadores en sasafrás. Se capturaron machos y hembras adultos así como ninfas del segundo al quinto estadio de Halyomorpha halys en las trampas, y se observaron en árboles de sasafrás durante la temporada en ambos lugares cada año del estudio. Trissolcus euschisti Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) (67,7%) y Anastatus reduvii (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) (18,3%) fueron las principales especies de parasitoides que emergieron de las masas de huevos centinela de H. halys. La succión por los estiletes (62,3%) y la masticación (32,0%) fueron las principales clases de depredación sobre los huevos de H. halys. Concluimos que el sasafrás es una planta hospedera reproductiva para H. halys, y los enemigos naturales nativos se alimentan y parasitan las masas de huevos de H. halys en esta planta hospedera. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
BROWN marmorated stink bug, STINKBUGS, PARASITISM, PREDATION, and HEMIPTERA
Stink bugs, including Halyomorpha halys (Stål) and Nezara viridula (L.), are agricultural pests that feed on fruit in a variety of crops. Monitoring predation and parasitism of stink bug egg masses furthers our understanding of potential biological control tactics. However, best practices for laboratory and field assessments of parasitism and predation of egg masses require further attention. We carried out a series of laboratory and field experiments to test whether parasitism and predation for three types of sentinel H. halys egg masses, fresh, frozen, and refrigerated, varied in agricultural commodities. In addition, we asked if predation and parasitism differed between sentinel and naturally occurring H. halys and N. viridula egg masses in soybean. In the laboratory, more H. halys eggs were parasitized by Trissolcus euschisti (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) if they were frozen or refrigerated compared to fresh eggs. Similarly, in the field, parasitism was higher for frozen egg masses than fresh. In 2018 and 2019, H. halys natural egg masses had higher parasitism and lower predation compared to sentinel egg masses in soybean. In a paired field test during 2020 and 2021, there was no difference in parasitism between H. halys natural and sentinel eggs, but much higher incidence of parasitism was detected in natural N. viridula egg masses than sentinel eggs. Collecting natural egg masses is the best methodology for field assessment of parasitism of stink bug egg masses; however, if natural egg masses are not easily available, deploying refrigerated sentinel egg masses is a good alternative. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Leers, Math P. G., Deneer, Ruben, Mostard, Guy J. M., Mostard, Remy L. M., Boer, Arjen-Kars, Scharnhorst, Volkher, Stals, Frans, Kleinveld, Henne A., and van Dam, Dirk W.
PLoS ONE. 6/28/2022, Vol. 17 Issue 6, p1-12. 12p.
MEDICAL personnel, BLOOD testing, COVID-19 testing, SICK leave, and HOSPITALS
Background: COVID-19 is an ongoing pandemic leading to exhaustion of the hospital care system. Our health care system has to deal with a high level of sick leave of health care workers (HCWs) with COVID-19 related complaints, in whom an infection with SARS-CoV-2 has to be ruled out before they can return back to work. The aim of the present study is to investigate if the recently described CoLab-algorithm can be used to exclude COVID-19 in a screening setting of HCWs. Methods: In the period from January 2021 till March 2021, HCWs with COVID-19-related complaints were prospectively collected and included in this study. Next to the routinely performed SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR, using a set of naso- and oropharyngeal swab samples, two blood tubes (one EDTA- and one heparin-tube) were drawn for analysing the 10 laboratory parameters required for running the CoLab-algorithm. Results: In total, 726 HCWs with a complete CoLab-laboratory panel were included in this study. In this group, 684 HCWs were tested SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negative and 42 cases RT-PCR positive. ROC curve analysis showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.853 (95% CI: 0.801–0.904). At a safe cut-off value for excluding COVID-19 of -6.525, the sensitivity was 100% with a specificity of 34% (95% CI: 21 to 49%). No SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR cases were missed with this cut-off and COVID-19 could be safely ruled out in more than one third of HCWs. Conclusion: The CoLab-score is an easy and reliable algorithm that can be used for screening HCWs with COVID-19 related complaints. A major advantage of this approach is that the results of the score are available within 1 hour after collecting the samples. This results in a faster return to labour process of a large part of the COVID-19 negative HCWs (34%), next to a reduction in RT-PCR tests (reagents and labour costs) that can be saved. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Gariepy, Tara D., Musolin, Dmitry L., Konjević, Aleksandra, Karpun, Natalia N., Zakharchenko, Vilena Y., Zhuravleva, Elena N., Tavella, Luciana, Bruin, Allison, and Haye, Tim
NeoBiota. 9/30/2021, Vol. 68, p53-77. 25p.
STINKBUGS, BROWN marmorated stink bug, CYTOCHROME oxidase, GENETIC variation, and HEMIPTERA
The arrival, establishment and pest status of Halyomorpha halys in Europe and non-native countries in Asia have been well-documented, with thorough characterisation of the genetic diversity and occurrence of cytochrome oxidase I (COI) haplotypes in Switzerland, France, Hungary, Italy and Greece. However, a number of gaps exist in terms of the characterisation of the haplotype diversity and occurrence of H. halys along the invasion front that covers eastern Europe, western and central Asia. To contribute towards filling this gap, the COI haplotype diversity and distribution were investigated for H. halys collected in Serbia, Ukraine, Russia, Georgia and Kazakhstan. A total of 646 specimens were analysed and five haplotypes were found (H1, H3, H8, H33 and H80). Haplotype H1 was present in all five countries investigated and was the only haplotype detected amongst > 500 specimens collected from Ukraine, Russia and Georgia. H1 (82%) was the dominant haplotype found in Kazakhstan, alongside H3 (18%). In contrast to the low or no diversity observed in these four countries, Serbia had higher haplotype diversity and was represented by five haplotypes. Although H3 was dominant (47%) in Serbia, H1 was also prevalent (40%); the remaining haplotypes (H8, H33 and H80) were minor contributors (1-11%) to the haplotype composition. The results are discussed in context with other known populations in neighbouring countries and patterns of haplotype diversity indicate the movement of successful invasive populations in Europe to generate secondary invasions along the eastern front of the invasion in Eurasia. Possible scenarios regarding the spread of particular haplotypes in these regions are discussed, along with suggestions for future research to fill existing gaps. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
BIOLOGICAL weed control, BIOLOGICAL pest control agents, CHRYSOMELIDAE, BEETLES, HYMENOPTERA, and EUCALYPTUS
The solitary larval endoparasitoid Eadya daenerys Ridenbaugh (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a proposed biocontrol agent of Paropsis charybdis Stål (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Chrysomelinae), a pest of eucalypts in New Zealand. Eadya daenerys oviposition behaviour was examined in two assay types during host range testing, with the aim of improving ecological host range prediction. No‐choice sequential and two‐choice behavioural observations were undertaken against nine closely related species of New Zealand non‐target beetle larvae, including a native beetle, introduced weed biocontrol agents, and invasive paropsine beetles. No behavioural measure was significantly different between no‐choice and two‐choice tests. In sequential no‐choice assays the order of first presentation (target–non‐target) had no significant effect on the median number of attacks or the attack rate while on the plant. Beetle species was the most important factor. Parasitoids expressed significantly lower on‐plant attack rates against non‐targets compared to target P. charybdis larvae. The median number of attacks was always higher towards target larvae than towards non‐target larvae, except for the phylogenetically closest related non‐target Trachymela sloanei (Blackburn) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Chrysomelinae). Most non‐target larvae were disregarded upon contact, which suggests that the infrequent attack behaviour observed by two individual E. daenerys against Allocharis nr. tarsalis larvae in two‐choice tests and the frass of Chrysolina abchasica (Weise) was probably abnormal host selection behaviour. Results indicate that E. daenerys is unlikely to attack non‐target species apart from Eucalyptus‐feeding invasive paropsines (Chrysomelinae). Non‐lethal negative impacts upon less preferred non‐target larvae are possible if E. daenerys does attack them in the field; however, this is likely to be rare. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
BIOLOGICAL pest control agents, BIOLOGICAL pest control, PEST control, PESTS, TOMATOES, and SPECIES pools
Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), a key pest of tomato, is quickly spreading over the world and biological control is considered as one of the control options. Worldwide more than 160 species of natural enemies are associated with this pest, and an important challenge is to quickly find an effective biocontrol agent from this pool of candidate species. Evaluation criteria for control agents are presented, with the advantages they offer for separating potentially useful natural enemies from less promising ones. Next, an aggregate parameter for ranking agents is proposed: the pest kill rate k m. We explain why the predator's intrinsic rate of increase cannot be used for comparing the control potential of predators or parasitoids, while k m can be used to compare both types of natural enemies. As an example, kill rates for males, females and both sexes combined of three Neotropical mirid species (Campyloneuropsis infumatus (Carvalho), Engytatus varians (Distant) and Macrolophus basicornis (Stål)) were determined, taking all life-history data (developmental times, survival rates, total nymphal and adult predation, sex ratios and adult lifespan) into account. Based on the value for the intrinsic rate of increase (r m) for T. absoluta and for the kill rate k m of the predators, we predict that all three predators are potentially able to control the pest, because their k m values are all higher than the r m of the pest. Using only k m values, we conclude that E. varians is the best candidate for control of T. absoluta on tomato, with C. infumatus ranking second and M. basicornis last. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
MELIACEAE, HOST plants, HEMIPTERA, STINKBUGS, and INSECT antifeedants
Currently, the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is considered an agricultural and nuisance pest in Georgia. The invasive chinaberry tree, Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae), commonly grows in dense thickets along roadsides, and in woodlands adjacent to agricultural crops across the southeastern USA. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the potential of M. azedarach to serve as a host plant of H. halys by examining mortality and feeding of first and second instars on M. azedarach leaves vs. carrot (i.e., a control diet), and documenting presence of H. halys on M. azedarach in woodlands at 2 locations in Georgia where this stink bug has become established. Over all sampling dates and locations, the number of H. halys in chinaberry was very low (0.1 per tree), and only 3 late instars and 1 adult were observed feeding on M. azedarach at 1 field site late in the season. Percentage feeding by second instars of H. halys was lower for individuals given M. azedarach leaves vs. those provided with carrot, most likely indicating that compounds in M. azedarach have an antifeeding effect. In fact, mortality for second instars on M. azedarach leaves was very high, and thus we conclude that M. azedarach is an unsuitable host plant for H. halys. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Mascarenhas, J., Virtgaym, E., Stal, M., Blacklock, H., Gerds, A. T., Mesa, R., Ganly, P., Snyder, D., Tabbara, I., Tremblay, D., and Moshier, E.
Annals of Hematology. Aug2018, Vol. 97 Issue 8, p1369-1374. 6p.
MYELOFIBROSIS, JANUS kinases, HEMATOPOIETIC stem cell transplantation, MYELOSUPPRESSION, CLINICAL trials, THERAPEUTICS, DRUG therapy, COMPARATIVE studies, HETEROCYCLIC compounds, RESEARCH methodology, MEDICAL cooperation, GENETIC mutation, RESEARCH, RESEARCH funding, EVALUATION research, TREATMENT effectiveness, KAPLAN-Meier estimator, PROTEIN kinase inhibitors, and DIAGNOSIS
Myelofibrosis (MF) is a chronic yet progressive myeloid neoplasm in which only a minority of patients undergo curative therapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Ruxolitinib, a JAK1/2 inhibitor, is the lone therapy approved for MF, offering a clear symptom and spleen benefit at the expense of treatment-related cytopenias. Pacritinib (PAC), a multi-kinase inhibitor with specificity for JAK2, FLT3, and IRAK1 but sparing JAK1, has demonstrated clinical activity in MF with minimal myelosuppression. Due to an FDA-mandated full clinical hold, the randomized phase 3 PERSIST trials were abruptly stopped and PAC was immediately discontinued for all patients. Thirty-three patients benefitting from PAC on clinical trial prior to the hold were allowed to resume therapy on an individual, compassionate-use basis. This study reports the detailed outcomes of 19 of these PAC retreatment patients with a median follow-up of 8 months. Despite a median platelet count of 49 × 109/L at restart of PAC, no significant change in hematologic profile was observed. Grade 3/4 adverse events of epistaxis (n = 1), asymptomatic QT prolongation (n = 1), and bradycardia (n = 1) occurred in three patients within the first 3 months of retreatment. One death due to catheter-associated sepsis occurred. The median time to discontinuation of PAC therapy on compassionate use for all 33 patients was 12.2 (95% CI 8.3-NR) months. PAC retreatment was associated with modest improvement in splenomegaly without progressive myelosuppression and supports the continued development of this agent for the treatment of MF second line to ruxolitinib or in the setting of treatment-limiting thrombocytopenia. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Florencia, Fritz, Ramonda, Fernando, and Baudino, Estela M.
Semiárida. Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía UNLPam. 2018, Vol. 28 Issue 2, p35-44. 10p.
The work's aims were to identify both harmful and helpful insect species for safflower crop and to study their distribution along time in relation to plant phenological state. The insect species identified as harmful were: Uroleucon jaceae L., Capitophorus elaeagni, Frankliniella occidentalis P., Dichelops furcatus (F.), Athaumasthus haematicus (Stál), Nezara viridula (L.), Nysius simulans Stál, Edessa meditabunda (F.), Piezodorus guildinii (W.), Helicoverpa zea B., Epicauta adspersa K., Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), Chauliognathus scriptus (Germ.), Pantomorus auripes H. and Rachiplusia nu (G.). Regarding aphids, their highest density was observed at the beginning of November, when crop was in the state of branching, with invasion mainly of the upper third of plants: leaves, young shoots and flower heads. Among all harmful true bugs found in the crop, red bug - Athaumastus haematicus (Stál)- comprised the highest proportion and was detected before aphids attacks, when stem elongation of plants was just beginning. As for beneficial species, the six insects detected in sufflower crop were Hippodamia convergens G., Eriopis connexa G., Harmonia axyridis (P.), Nabis sp., Ophion sp. and Apis melifera L., besides various spider species. The coccinellids- Hippodamia convergens; Eriopis connexa and Harmonia axydiris performed as the main natural control agents at crop. KE [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
BUENO, V. H. P., CALIXTO, A. M., MONTES, F. C., and VAN LENTEREN, J. C.
Israel Journal of Entomology. 2018, Vol. 48 Issue 2, p1-22. 22p.
MIRIDAE, EGGS as food, PREDATORY animals, TEMPERATURE effect, and MEDITERRANEAN flour moth
Three Neotropical predators Campyloneuropsis infumatus (Carvalho), Engytatus varians (Distant) and Macrolophus basicornis (Stål) (Hemiptera: Miridae) are considered in Brazil as potential biological control agents of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and other tomato pests. This study evaluated the effect of five constant temperatures (16, 20, 24, 28 and 32°C, all ±1°C) on the reproduction, population growth and longevity of these predatory mirids. Adults freshly emerged from nymphs reared at each temperature, were separated in couples and kept in 1.7 l glass pots with tobacco plant seedlings (Nicotiana tabacum L., cv. TNN) as oviposition substrate and ad libitum Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs as food. The shortest pre-oviposition and the longest oviposition periods were observed at 24°C and 28°C in all three mirid species. At 24°C all three species showed the highest daily and total fecundities. The population growth parameters represented by the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) and the finite rate of increase (λ) were highest at 24°C and 28°C, and the net reproductive rate (R0) was highest at 24°C for all three species. Longevities of both males and females were longest at 24°C and 28°C in all three mirids. The size of tibia and adult weight in the three species were greatest at 20°C and 28°C, respectively. Differences in values for all above variables were small and often statistically non-significant for the three mirid species at the same temperature. Also, not a single significant difference was found for any of the growth parameters at each of the temperatures, including rm. The results indicate that temperatures in the range from 24-28°C are best for reproduction and population growth of C. infumatus, E. varians and M. basicornis. The factitious prey E. kuehniella is an excellent food source and tobacco plants provide a good rearing substrate for these mirids. The obtained results may assist in developing a mass rearing method for C. infumatus, E. varians and M. basicornis, in determining optimal timing and frequency of mirid releases in the crop, and in determining whether they are active at the temperature spectrum observed during tomato production in the field or greenhouse. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]