Autonomy & independence movements, Glasnost, Indigenous peoples -- History, Twentieth century, and History
Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia were the three Baltic republics of the Soviet Union. They shared a common European culture, although Estonia and Latvia had closer ties to Scandinavia and Germany, whereas Lithuania’s ties were with Poland and Central Europe. In the twentieth century, the fates of the three Baltic States were linked. All three became independent after the Russian Revolution in 1917, and all were forcibly annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940. No other of the national minorities of the Soviet Union had experienced sovereign independence during that time.
Gaulle, Charles de, 1890-1970 and Resignation from public office
On April 28, 1969, President Charles de Gaulle of France picked up the telephone in his home in Colombey-les-Deux-Eglises and dictated a brief farewell statement to the Elysée Palace in Paris: “I am ceasing to exercise my functions as president of the republic. This decision takes effect today at noon.” The call signaled the end of de Gaulle’s eleven-year reign as president of the French Republic. This period witnessed the birth of the Fifth French Republic, the end of the Algerian crisis, and the exit of France from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s defense structure. It saw the development of a French nuclear arsenal and striking force, and a French drive for leadership of the developing nations in Africa and Asia. The French people reacted with optimistic anticipation of new leadership with its greater attention to pressing social and economic problems at home. Nostalgia and a sense of loss tempered their reflections upon de Gaulle and the end of a great era in French history.
Although the beginnings of an identifiably Australian drama can be discerned in plays written during the 1930’s, it was not until about 1960 that plays of lasting or literary merit were frequently printed or performed. For convenience, ’s (pr. 1955) is often regarded as the precursor of modern Australian drama, yet in 1956, , in a article, “Standards in Australian Literature,” published by the University of Sydney, noted that “there is not much to say about Australian drama,” and Cecil Hadgraft, in (1960), a highly regarded conspectus, wholly omitted any consideration of plays.
Neurolinguistics, Language & languages -- Physiological aspects, and Higher nervous activity
Neurolinguistics is the study of how the brain represents and computes language. Neurolinguistics is an interdisciplinary field, with elements of psychology, neuroscience, and linguistics all being an important part of the history and development of the field. Neurolinguists are people who study neurolinguistics. These scientists are interested in brain function and the implications of the way the brain works. Neurolinguists have to understand both neuroscience—the structure and function of the brain, and linguistics—the structure and human use of language. Neurolinguists use a variety of methods for studying the brain and its use of language, but the most important are imaging machines and machines that measure the electric signals in the brain. Scientists use data collected by the machines to develop ideas about how the human brain creates, processes, and responds to language. Humans have been interested in the brain and human thought for thousands of years, but the field of neurolinguistics only developed into its own field in the 1960s. The field developed thanks to new research about language acquisition in humans and new technology that allowed scientists to study the living brain without conducting surgery.
Linguistics, Cognitive psychology, and Cognitive science
Linguistics, the scientific study of the structure of language, is a field in its own right, but it makes contact with psychology at every turn. Linguists address speech perception, language development, and language comprehension, while cognitive psychologists (psychologists who study human thought) study memory for exact wording, the relationship of language and thought, and language disorders, among other topics.
Friedrich Nietzsche holds a commanding historical significance in modern thought in spite of a continuing controversy about his stature as a philosophical mind. Many scholars refuse to judge Nietzsche’s brilliant writings as serious philosophical contributions. They prefer to view him as a poet, as a critic of culture and religion, or even as a superb master of the German language. Yet some scholars insist on Nietzsche’s importance as a genuine philosophical figure—a lonely, disturbed thinker who anticipated criticism of the classical ideal of a rigorously deductive model of philosophical knowledge and of the accompanying belief in the possibility of a completed metaphysics. Nietzsche felt keenly the impact of Darwinian evolutionary views that so stirred many nineteenth century thinkers in a number of intellectual fields. As a philosopher, he must be included in that group of thinkers for whom the philosopher’s primary function is to lay bare the unexamined assumptions and buried cultural influences lurking behind supposedly disinterested moral and metaphysical constructions.
Wolff, Tobias, 1945-, American authors, and Short story writing
American short-story writer and novelist. Tobias Jonathan Ansell Wolff is one of the most highly respected writers of short fiction to have achieved prominence in the 1980’s. He was born in Birmingham, Alabama, on June 19, 1945, the son of Arthur and Rosemary (Loftus) Wolff, and grew up in the state of Washington, where he and his mother had moved some six years after his parents’ divorce in 1951. Wolff left his home in rural Washington to attend preparatory school at the Hill School in Pennsylvania but failed to graduate from that institution. After enlisting in the U.S. Army, Special Forces, serving from 1964 to 1968, during which time he served in Vietnam, Wolff earned a bachelor’s degree from Oxford University in 1972 and a master’s degree from Oxford in 1975. He spent the 1975–76 academic year at Stanford University, having won a Wallace Stegner Fellowship in creative writing. He earned a master’s degree from Stanford in 1978, the same year in which he received his first National Endowment for the Arts Fellowship. Like many other contemporary writers, Wolff has supported himself by teaching. He has served on the faculties of Stanford University, Goddard College, Arizona State University, and Syracuse University and has been a reporter for The Washington Post. Wolff published his first collection of stories, In the Garden of the North American Martyrs , in 1981. The book received exceptional reviews, and the following year it earned for Wolff the St. Lawrence Award for Fiction. In the stories’ range of characters, situations, and literary techniques, this collection revealed Wolff to be a writer not merely of promise but of manifest achievement as well.
Koch, Kenneth, 1925-2002, American authors, and 20th century American poetry
In addition to poetry, Kenneth Koch published one novel, The Red Robins (1975), and books of dramatic pieces, including Bertha, and Other Plays (1966) and A Change of Hearts: Plays, Films, and Other Dramatic Works, 1951-1971 (1973). Both Koch’s novel and his works for the stage are imaginative and improvisatory in their consistent portrayal of the comic drama of life.
This paper begins with a brief historical overview of the Esperanto language by presenting a brief biography of its founder and the historical and geographical context within which the language was created. The paper then gives a brief linguistic description of Esperanto, gathers evidence on who and how many people use Esperanto today, explains some the most basic advantages of the language, discusses criticism of Esperanto, then offers information on some of the largest Esperanto collections around the world.
This article focuses on citizenship classes for foreign-born adults, often for whom English is not the native language. Information about the citizenship process as well as some examples of instructional techniques and theories to help these adult students be successful and pass the naturalization test are also included.
Indiana, the "Hoosier State," entered the Union on December 11, 1816, as the nineteenth state. It is located in the upper Midwest, part of the north-central United States. Indiana borders Michigan and Lake Michigan on the north, Ohioon the east, Kentucky on the south, and Illinois on the west. As the name implies, the state was once home to numerous American Indian tribes. Today, Indiana is known for widespread agriculture, industrial cities such as Gary, Evansville, and Indianapolis, and state residents' intense love of basketball and automobile racing.
Colorado is located in the western United States where the high plains meet the Rocky Mountains. The Rocky Mountains are one of the state's most famous attractions and the area's dominant landform. Unlike most of the other states, Colorado's borders are all artificially determined, rather than following the course of a river or other geographic feature. Rectangular in shape, the state is bordered by New Mexico, Utah, Wyoming, Nebraska, Kansas, and Oklahoma. Colorado was admitted to the Union as the thirty-eighth state on August 1, 1876, earning it the nickname “Centennial State.”
Situated in the southwestern region of the United States along the Mexican border, Arizona is also bordered by the states of California, Nevada, Utah, and New Mexico. Arizona has one of the fastest-growing populations due to its “Sun Belt” appeal, which draws many tourists to state. Among its popular historical and natural attractions are the Grand Canyon, and the iconic saguaro cactus that grows in the desert climate. Arizona was the forty-eighth state to join the Union and the last of the contiguous continental states. It achieved statehood on February 14, 1912.
Located in the southeastern United States, Alabama's nicknames have included the Cotton Plantation State and the Camellia State. It is today better known as the Heart of Dixie. Alabama borders Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south and Mississippi to the west. Georgia is to its east and Tennessee to its north. It was in this state that the Confederate constitution was written during the Civil War and where the famous battle cry "Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead!" was issued by David Farragut during the Battle of Mobile Bay in 1864. Alabama's "King Cotton" crop was its primary agricultural product until the early 1900s, when the crops were destroyed by a beetle known as the boll weevil, forcing farmers to diversify the products they grew.
Salem Press Encyclopedia of Literature, 2019. 16p.
Short story (Literary form) and Literary criticism
The common critical assumption is that the short story was first recognized as a literary genre with unique characteristics in the 1840’s with Edgar Allan Poe’s discussions of a “unified effect” of “the tale proper.” However, Poe did not develop these ideas out of thin air; short prose fiction was a topic of critical discussion in Germany in the decades preceding Poe’s influential assertions.
Salem Press Encyclopedia of Literature, 2019. 12p.
Language & history and Linguistics
Most humans past the infant stage have a spoken language and use it regularly for understanding and speaking, although much of the world’s population is still illiterate and cannot read or write. Language is such a natural part of life that people tend to overlook it until they are presented with some special problem: They lose their sight or hearing, have a stroke, or are required to learn a foreign language. Of course, people may also study their own language, but seldom do they stand aside and view language for what it is—a complex human phenomenon with a history reaching back to humankind’s beginnings. A study of the development of one language will often reveal intertwinings with other languages. Sometimes such knowledge enables linguists to construct family groups; just as often, the divergences among languages or language families are so great that separate typological variations are established.