Barberio, Amanda M., Quinonez, Carlos, Hosein, F. Shaun, and McLaren, Lindsay
Canadian Journal of Public Health. May-June, 2017, Vol. 108 Issue 3, e229, 11 p.
Fluorides -- Health aspects, Drinking water -- Health aspects, and Learning disabilities -- Diagnosis
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have connected increased fluoride exposure with increased risk of neurodevelopmental-related outcomes, such as ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) and lower IQ in children. Our primary objective was to examine the association between fluoride exposure and reported diagnosis of a learning disability among a population-based sample of Canadian children aged 3-12 years. METHODS: We analyzed data from Cycles 2 and 3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey. Four measures of fluoride exposure were available: 1) urinary fluoride ([micro]mol/L), 2) creatinine-adjusted urinary fluoride ([micro]mol/mmol), 3) specific gravity-adjusted urinary fluoride ([micro]mol/L), and 4) fluoride concentration of tap water (mg/L) (Cycle 3 only). Diagnosis of a learning disability (yes/no) was based on parental- or self-report. Associations were examined using logistic regression (where possible), unadjusted and adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: When Cycles 2 and 3 were examined separately, reported learning disability diagnosis was not significantly associated with any measure of fluoride exposure in unadjusted or adjusted models. When Cycles 2 and 3 were combined, a small but statistically significant effect was observed such that children with higher urinary fluoride had higher odds of having a reported learning disability in the adjusted model (p = 0.03). However, the association was not observed in models that used creatinine-adjusted urinary fluoride and specific gravity-adjusted urinary fluoride, which are believed to be more accurate measures due to their correction for urinary dilution. CONCLUSION: Overall, there did not appear to be a robust association between fluoride exposure and parental- or self- reported diagnosis of a learning disability among Canadian children. KEY WORDS: Population; fluoridation; cognition; learning disorders; surveys and questionnaires OBJECTIFS : Des etudes recentes ont revele que la croissance de l'exposition au fluorure augmente le risque de maladies reliees au developpement des neurones telles que, TDAH (trouble deficitaire de l'attention, avec ou sans hyperactivite) et de QI moins eleves chez les enfants. Notre objectif principal est d'examiner le lien entre l'exposition au fluorure et les diagnostics publies sur les troubles d'apprentissage selon un echantillon de la population d'enfants ages de 3 a 12 ans. METHODES : Nous avons analyse les donnees des cycles 2 et 3 de l'Enquete canadienne sur les mesures de la sante. Quatre mesures de fluorure etaient disponibles : 1) fluorure urinaire ([micro]mol/L), 2) fluorure urinaire normalisee par la creatinine ([micro]mol/mmol), 3) fluorure urinaire specifique normalisee pour la gravite ([micro]mol/L), et 4) concentration de fluorure de l'eau du robinet (mg/L) (Cycle 3 seulement). Le diagnostic des troubles d'apprentissage (oui ou non) etait fonde sur les rapports parentaux ou sur l'auto-evaluation. Les liens ont ete examines en utilisant la regression logistique (la oU c'etait possible), donnees non corrigees et corrigees pour les covariables. RESULTATS : Lorsque les cycles 2 et 3 ont ete examines separement, le diagnostic sur les troubles d'apprentissage ne presentait aucun lien significatif avec les mesures d'exposition au fluorure, dans les modeles corriges ou non corriges. Lorsque les cycles 2 et 3 ont ete regroupes, un leger effet, mais dont la signification statistique a ete observee comme quoi les enfants ayant demontre un taux de fluorure urinaire plus eleve avaient plus de chances d'avoir des troubles d'apprentissage selon le modele corrige (p = 0.03). Cependant, ce lien n'a pas ete observe dans les modeles qui utilisaient des taux de fluorure urinaire corriges pour la creatinine et corriges pour la gravite specifique, lesquels sont censes etre plus precis en raison de la correction pour la dilution urinaire. CONCLUSION : En general, nous n'avons trouve aucun lien solide entre l'exposition au fluorure et les diagnostics des parents ou des autoevaluations parmi les enfants canadiens quant aux troubles d'apprentissages. MOTS CLES : population; fluorisation; cognition; troubles d'apprentissage; sondages et questionnaires
FM Marsaux, Cyril, Celis-Morales, Carlos, M Livingstone, Katherine, Fallaize, Rosalind, Kolossa, Silvia, Hallmann, Jacqueline, San-Cristobal, Rodrigo, Navas-Carretero, Santiago, B O'Donovan, Clare, Woolhead, Clara, Forster, Hannah, Moschonis, George, Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina, Surwillo, Agnieszka, Godlewska, Magdalena, Hoonhout, Jettie, Goris, Annelies, L Macready, Anna, C Walsh, Marianne, and R Gibney, Eileen
Journal of Medical Internet Research. Feb2016, Vol. 18 Issue 2, pe30-14. 1p.
Internet, Research methodology, Questionnaires, Research, Comparative studies, Medical cooperation, Motor ability, Obesity, Research funding, Statistical sampling, Self-evaluation, Genetic testing, Evaluation research, Randomized controlled trials, and Genotypes
Background: There is evidence that physical activity (PA) can attenuate the influence of the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) genotype on the risk to develop obesity. However, whether providing personalized information on FTO genotype leads to changes in PA is unknown.Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if disclosing FTO risk had an impact on change in PA following a 6-month intervention.Methods: The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9939609 in the FTO gene was genotyped in 1279 participants of the Food4Me study, a four-arm, Web-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) in 7 European countries on the effects of personalized advice on nutrition and PA. PA was measured objectively using a TracmorD accelerometer and was self-reported using the Baecke questionnaire at baseline and 6 months. Differences in baseline PA variables between risk (AA and AT genotypes) and nonrisk (TT genotype) carriers were tested using multiple linear regression. Impact of FTO risk disclosure on PA change at 6 months was assessed among participants with inadequate PA, by including an interaction term in the model: disclosure (yes/no) × FTO risk (yes/no).Results: At baseline, data on PA were available for 874 and 405 participants with the risk and nonrisk FTO genotypes, respectively. There were no significant differences in objectively measured or self-reported baseline PA between risk and nonrisk carriers. A total of 807 (72.05%) of the participants out of 1120 in the personalized groups were encouraged to increase PA at baseline. Knowledge of FTO risk had no impact on PA in either risk or nonrisk carriers after the 6-month intervention. Attrition was higher in nonrisk participants for whom genotype was disclosed (P=.01) compared with their at-risk counterparts.Conclusions: No association between baseline PA and FTO risk genotype was observed. There was no added benefit of disclosing FTO risk on changes in PA in this personalized intervention. Further RCT studies are warranted to confirm whether disclosure of nonrisk genetic test results has adverse effects on engagement in behavior change.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01530139; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01530139 (Archived by WebCite at: http://www.webcitation.org/6XII1QwHz). [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]