'Prototyping' is frequently cited as an effective alternative technique to traditional approaches for the development of systems. This paper reviews recent literature on the subject and categorizes prototyping techniques that appear to be widely used. A large number of tools have been used for prototyping and they are discussed in relation to the technique employed and other factors in the programming environment. Issues of programming methodology raised by prototypes are also discussed.
Communications of the ACM. Jun 1984, Vol. 27 Issue 6, p556-563. 8p.
DESIGN and EVALUATION
A two-phased research project comparing the prototyping approach with the more traditional life cycle approach finds that prototyping facilitates communication between users and designers during the design process. However, the findings also indicate that designers who used prototyping experienced difficulties in managing and controlling the design process
A conceptual language (CPL) is proposed, derived from natural language theory, for specifying both the static and dynamic component of a conceptual model using the same basic structures. A software tool is also described, which automatically generates a prototype database from the conceptual model, are automatically checked when the prototype database changes. Also the events, declared in the dynamic component of the conceptual model, are automatically converted into procedures which operate on the prototype database.
Information & Management. 1988, Vol. 14 Issue 3, p133-142. 10p.
DESIGN, LIBRARY users, and GRAPHIC arts
Designing complex information systems requires the cooperation of the designer, the builder, and the user. A number of problems that stem from the different backgrounds of these people must be overcome in order to achieve efficient communication among them. Several 'vehicles for communication,' or forms of specification language, are discussed, including graphic diagrams, tables, natural languages, and formal languages. Although intended for investigating design options, the technique of prototyping also provides a mechanism for communication that is particularly useful when requirements are incomplete. These various forms of expression are compared, and the strengths and weaknesses of each are highlighted.
Effective information requirements analysis (IRA) is critical for the success of application systems. Literature has mainly defined the contingencies under which specific IRA methods are most effective for determining the content of information. This paper shows how IRA methods can supplement each other, instead of being viewed as alternatives. A process for combining IRA methods is developed. Resolving differences between Decision Analysis and Data Analysis by developing different kinds of Prototypes is presented as an integrated framework of IRA. Case studies illustrating this approach are included. The paper extends research in two areas: IRA and Prototyping
Human Factors. Aug 1988, Vol. 30 Issue 4, p395-414. 20p.
ARTIFICIAL intelligence, ATTITUDE (Psychology), DESIGN, and HUMAN engineering
This paper discusses the critical psychological and human factors issues that must be addressed in the design, prototyping, and acceptance of expert systems. Specifically, human factors considerations are addressed from the development, rapid prototyping, and end-user perspectives. Where possible, human factors guidelines are offered for each knowledge-processing stage underlying expert system development, prototyping, evaluation, and acceptance.
ARTIFICIAL intelligence, EXPERT systems (Computer science), INTERACTIVE computer systems, and KNOWLEDGE acquisition (Expert systems)
This paper describes trends in knowledge support environments — integrated interactive knowledge acquisition systems and expert system shells — that can provide a specialist community with tools supporting a wide range of knowledge processes. These systems extrapolate the trend from human knowledge engineering, through automated interviewing of the expert, to continuing on-line access to both knowledge acquisition and application processes. In knowledge support systems the distinctions between expert, knowledge engineer and client roles are deliberately blurred, and a diversity of knowledge processes and changing roles are supported within an entire interacting community. A prototype knowledge support system is described with examples of some of the knowledge acquisition and application tools provided. It is suggested that such systems provide a major knowledge-based technology with commercial implications and applications going beyond those currently envisioned for expert systems. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Work reported in this paper is part of a continuing effort to apply rapid prototyping and Artificial Intelligence techniques to problems associated with projected Space Station-era information management systems. In particular, timely updating of the various databases and knowledge structures within a proposed intelligent information management system (IIMS) is critical to support decision making processes. Because of the significantly large amounts of data entering the IIMS on a daily basis, information updates will need to be automatically performed with some systems requiring that data be incorporated and made available to users within a few hours. Meeting these demands depends first, on the design and implementation of information structures that are easily modified and expanded, and second, on the incorporation of intelligent automated update techniques that will allow meaningful information relationships to be established. This paper examines potential techniques for developing such an automated update capability and examines IIMS update requirements in light of results obtained from the IIMS prototyping effort.
IEEE Expert Intelligent Systems & Their Applications. Aug 1990, Vol. 5 Issue 4, p29-38. 10p.
ARTIFICIAL intelligence, EXPERT systems (Computer science), and KNOWLEDGE management
This paper proposes that knowledge specifications be used as bases for developing and maintaining expert systems. The authors produce a knowledge specification representing the kinds of knowledge and reasoning processes used to perform a task, and then builds a prototype to test and improve the knowledge specification. The proposal is primarily intended for medium- and large-scale expert systems. Prototyping is discussed, an expert systems knowledge specification is presented, and a methodology for creating a knowledge specification using conceptual structures is reviewed.