The acquisition of expert knowledge is fundamental to the certain of expert systems. The conventional approach to building expert systems assumes that the knowledge exists, and that it is feasible to find an expert who has the knowledge and can articulate it in collaboration with a knowledge engineer. This article considers the practice of knowledge engineering when these assumptions can not be strictly justified. It draws on our experiences in the design of VLSI design methods, and in the prototyping of an expert assistant for VLSI design. We suggest methods for expanding the practice of knowledge engineering when applied to fields that are fragmented and undergoing rapid evolution. We outline how the expanded practice can shape and accelerate the process of knowledge generation and refinement. Our examples also clarify some of the unarticulated present practice of knowledge engineering.
'Prototyping' is frequently cited as an effective alternative technique to traditional approaches for the development of systems. This paper reviews recent literature on the subject and categorizes prototyping techniques that appear to be widely used. A large number of tools have been used for prototyping and they are discussed in relation to the technique employed and other factors in the programming environment. Issues of programming methodology raised by prototypes are also discussed.
Communications of the ACM. Jun 1984, Vol. 27 Issue 6, p556-563. 8p.
DESIGN and EVALUATION
A two-phased research project comparing the prototyping approach with the more traditional life cycle approach finds that prototyping facilitates communication between users and designers during the design process. However, the findings also indicate that designers who used prototyping experienced difficulties in managing and controlling the design process
We use our experience with the Dipmeter Advisor system for well-log interpretation as a case study to examine the development of commercial expert system. We discuss the nature of these systems as we see them in the coming decade, characteristics of the evolution process, development methods, and skills required in the development team. We argue that the tools and ideas of rapid prototyping and successive refinement accelerate the development process. We note that different types of people are required at different stages of expert system development: Those who are primarily knowledgeable in the domain, but who can use the framework to expand the domain knowledge; and those who can actually design and build expert systems. Finally, we discuss the problem of technology transfer and compare our experience with some of the traditional wisdom of expert system development.
Getting started on a new knowledge engineering project is a difficult and challenging task, even for those who have done it before. For those who haven't, the task can often prove impossible. One reason is that the requirements-oriented methods and intuitions learned in the development of other types of software do not carry over well to the knowledge engineering task. Another reason is that methodologies for developing expert systems by extracting, representing, and manipulating an expert's knowledge have been slow in coming. At Tektronix, we have been using step-by-step approach to prototyping expert systems for over two years now. The primary features of this approach are that it gives software engineers who do not know knowledge engineering an easy place to start, and that it proceeds in a step-by-step fashion from initiation to implementation without inducing conceptual bottlenecks into the development process. This methodology has helped us collect the knowledge necessary to implement several prototype knowledge-based systems, including a troubleshooting assistant for the Tektronix FG-502 function generator and an operator's assistant for a wave solder machine.
Computer aided design (CAD) systems, or more generally interactive software, are today being developed for various application areas like VLSI-design, mechanical structure design, avionics design, cartographic design, architectual design, office automation, publishing, etc. Such tools are becoming more and more important in order to be productive and to be able to design quality products. One important part of CAD-software development is the man-machine interface (MMI) design.
Kastner, John, Apte, Chidanand, and Griesmer, James
AI Magazine; Vol 7, No 5: Special Issue 1986; 71
This article describes an effort to develop a knowledge-based financial marketing consultant system. Financial marketing is an excellent vehicle for both research and application in artificial intelligence (AI). This domain differs from the great majority of previous expert system domains in that there are no well-defined answers (in traditional sense); the goal here is to obtain satisfactory arguments to support the conclusions made. A large OPS5-based system was implemented as an initial prototype. We present the organization and principles underlying this system and offer our ongoing research directions. The experience gained in the initial prototyping effort is currently being used to further expert systems research and to develop an extensive system that ultimately can be used by the marketing organization.
A conceptual language (CPL) is proposed, derived from natural language theory, for specifying both the static and dynamic component of a conceptual model using the same basic structures. A software tool is also described, which automatically generates a prototype database from the conceptual model, are automatically checked when the prototype database changes. Also the events, declared in the dynamic component of the conceptual model, are automatically converted into procedures which operate on the prototype database.
Information & Management. 1988, Vol. 14 Issue 3, p133-142. 10p.
DESIGN, LIBRARY users, and GRAPHIC arts
Designing complex information systems requires the cooperation of the designer, the builder, and the user. A number of problems that stem from the different backgrounds of these people must be overcome in order to achieve efficient communication among them. Several 'vehicles for communication,' or forms of specification language, are discussed, including graphic diagrams, tables, natural languages, and formal languages. Although intended for investigating design options, the technique of prototyping also provides a mechanism for communication that is particularly useful when requirements are incomplete. These various forms of expression are compared, and the strengths and weaknesses of each are highlighted.
Effective information requirements analysis (IRA) is critical for the success of application systems. Literature has mainly defined the contingencies under which specific IRA methods are most effective for determining the content of information. This paper shows how IRA methods can supplement each other, instead of being viewed as alternatives. A process for combining IRA methods is developed. Resolving differences between Decision Analysis and Data Analysis by developing different kinds of Prototypes is presented as an integrated framework of IRA. Case studies illustrating this approach are included. The paper extends research in two areas: IRA and Prototyping
Human Factors. Aug 1988, Vol. 30 Issue 4, p395-414. 20p.
ARTIFICIAL intelligence, ATTITUDE (Psychology), DESIGN, and HUMAN engineering
This paper discusses the critical psychological and human factors issues that must be addressed in the design, prototyping, and acceptance of expert systems. Specifically, human factors considerations are addressed from the development, rapid prototyping, and end-user perspectives. Where possible, human factors guidelines are offered for each knowledge-processing stage underlying expert system development, prototyping, evaluation, and acceptance.
ARTIFICIAL intelligence, EXPERT systems (Computer science), INTERACTIVE computer systems, and KNOWLEDGE acquisition (Expert systems)
This paper describes trends in knowledge support environments — integrated interactive knowledge acquisition systems and expert system shells — that can provide a specialist community with tools supporting a wide range of knowledge processes. These systems extrapolate the trend from human knowledge engineering, through automated interviewing of the expert, to continuing on-line access to both knowledge acquisition and application processes. In knowledge support systems the distinctions between expert, knowledge engineer and client roles are deliberately blurred, and a diversity of knowledge processes and changing roles are supported within an entire interacting community. A prototype knowledge support system is described with examples of some of the knowledge acquisition and application tools provided. It is suggested that such systems provide a major knowledge-based technology with commercial implications and applications going beyond those currently envisioned for expert systems. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Johan H. Aas, Karsten Brathen, Erik Nordo, and Ole Ø. Ørpen
Modeling, Identification and Control, Vol 10, Iss 1, Pp 53-63 (1989)
system analysis, prototyping, human factors, Electronic computers. Computer science, Man-machine systems, ComputerApplications_COMPUTERSINOTHERSYSTEMS, guidance systems, QA75.5-76.95, and underseas systems
Important man-machine interface (MMI) issues concerning a submarine command and weapon control system (CWCS) such as crew organization, automation level and decision support are discussed in this paper. Generic submarine CWCS functions and operating conditions are outlined. Detailed, dynamic and real-time prototypes were used to support the MMI design. The prototypes are described and experience with detailed prototyping is discussed. Some of the main interaction principles are summarized and a restricted example of the resulting design is given. Our design experience and current work have been used to outline future perspectives of MMI design in naval CWCSs. The need for both formal and experimental approaches is emphasized.
Grønbæk, K 1989, ' Rapid Prototyping with Fourth Generation Systems - an Empirical Study ' Information Technology and People, vol. 5, no. 2 . https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000003530
Computer systems, Fourth-generation lanuguages, Information technology, and Research
Discusses experiences on the development and use of horizontal and vertical prototypes. Explains the difference. Resolves that horizontal prototypes can be developed with 'little effort', but end users are reluctant to become involved in the development process. Contrastingly resolves that vertical prototypes appear to stimulate constructive response. Reasons that developers should be aware of the tacit knowledge which plays an important part in users' work practices and should be involved early in the development process. Proposes three techniques to meet the requirements – participation, simulation and evaluation.
Work reported in this paper is part of a continuing effort to apply rapid prototyping and Artificial Intelligence techniques to problems associated with projected Space Station-era information management systems. In particular, timely updating of the various databases and knowledge structures within a proposed intelligent information management system (IIMS) is critical to support decision making processes. Because of the significantly large amounts of data entering the IIMS on a daily basis, information updates will need to be automatically performed with some systems requiring that data be incorporated and made available to users within a few hours. Meeting these demands depends first, on the design and implementation of information structures that are easily modified and expanded, and second, on the incorporation of intelligent automated update techniques that will allow meaningful information relationships to be established. This paper examines potential techniques for developing such an automated update capability and examines IIMS update requirements in light of results obtained from the IIMS prototyping effort.