'Prototyping' is frequently cited as an effective alternative technique to traditional approaches for the development of systems. This paper reviews recent literature on the subject and categorizes prototyping techniques that appear to be widely used. A large number of tools have been used for prototyping and they are discussed in relation to the technique employed and other factors in the programming environment. Issues of programming methodology raised by prototypes are also discussed.
Effective information requirements analysis (IRA) is critical for the success of application systems. Literature has mainly defined the contingencies under which specific IRA methods are most effective for determining the content of information. This paper shows how IRA methods can supplement each other, instead of being viewed as alternatives. A process for combining IRA methods is developed. Resolving differences between Decision Analysis and Data Analysis by developing different kinds of Prototypes is presented as an integrated framework of IRA. Case studies illustrating this approach are included. The paper extends research in two areas: IRA and Prototyping
ARTIFICIAL intelligence, EXPERT systems (Computer science), INTERACTIVE computer systems, and KNOWLEDGE acquisition (Expert systems)
This paper describes trends in knowledge support environments — integrated interactive knowledge acquisition systems and expert system shells — that can provide a specialist community with tools supporting a wide range of knowledge processes. These systems extrapolate the trend from human knowledge engineering, through automated interviewing of the expert, to continuing on-line access to both knowledge acquisition and application processes. In knowledge support systems the distinctions between expert, knowledge engineer and client roles are deliberately blurred, and a diversity of knowledge processes and changing roles are supported within an entire interacting community. A prototype knowledge support system is described with examples of some of the knowledge acquisition and application tools provided. It is suggested that such systems provide a major knowledge-based technology with commercial implications and applications going beyond those currently envisioned for expert systems. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Information Systems Management. Winter93, Vol. 10 Issue 1, p7. 8p. 2 Diagrams, 2 Charts, 2 Graphs.
Describes the features of the accelerated application engineering approach with consideration given to how and when it can be used for maximum effectiveness. Online interaction with users; Life cycle; Tactical information planning; Analysis prototyping; Construction; Integration and implementation.
Information Systems Management. Spring93, Vol. 10 Issue 2, p39. 6p.
Information resources management and Structured techniques of electronic data processing
Clarifies some myths held by information systems (IS) developers regarding system development life cycle (SDLC), prototyping and mixed or hybrid methodologies. Four basic stages of SDLC and its variations; Rapid iterative development of prototype models, such as real working and usable systems; Common life cycle stages; Use of computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools; Strategy and interaction tenets.
Information Systems Management. Fall95, Vol. 12 Issue 4, p69. 3p.
Computer software development
Discusses the approach information system departments must take in the adoption of prototyping as an alternative to traditional software development methods. Uncertainty over a key design component; Identification of operational constraints; Potential pitfalls.
This paper describes the introduction of virtual reality in the Land Rover headquarters in Solihull, West Midlands. Within two years, the Land Rover Power Train team (which is responsible for building the engines and gearboxes for the utility Defender, the luxury Range Rover and the more leisure-oriented Discovery) was using virtual reality software as the means of rapid prototyping new production lines and buildings on the 290-acre site. The article discusses handling the logistics of virtual reality implementation and cascading the concept of virtual reality.
Information Systems Management. Fall99, Vol. 16 Issue 4, p49. 11p. 1 Diagram.
Organizational change, Social change, and Social interaction
An organizational prototype is a forum to address simultaneously process, behavioral, and cultural change pursuant to business process redesign (BPR). In this case study, IS personnel facilitated organizational prototypes, thereby extending their knowledge of business systems to a new sphere, facilitating business process redesign. Success of the prototypes led to success in obtaining corporate funding for new client/server systems to support the changes in business operations. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Kubala, Francis, Colbath, Sean, Liu, Daben, Srivastava, Amit, and Makhoul, John
Communications of the ACM. Feb2000, Vol. 43 Issue 2, p48. 9p.
SPEECH perception, ARTIFICIAL intelligence, COMMUNICATION & technology, DIGITAL communications, DIGITAL video, INFORMATION resources management, INFORMATION retrieval, and PROTOTYPES, Engineering
The article focuses on transcribing speech and making it ready for browsing by explaining the Rough'n'Ready prototype system under development at Bolt, Beranek and Newman, that aims to provide a practical means of access to information contained in spoken language from audio and video sources. It creates a Rough summarization of speech that is Ready for browsing. The summarization, a structural representation of the content in spoken language that is very powerful and flexible as an index for content-based information management, includes extracted features such as names of people, places and organizations mentioned in the transcript as well as identities and locations of speakers in the recording. The system also breaks the continuous stream of words into passages that are thematically coherent. Each of these passages is automatically summarized with a short list of appropriate topic labels drawn from thousands of possibilities. Taken together, these capabilities effectively impose a document model upon spoken language.
Kessler, G. Drew, Bowman, Doug A., and Hodges, Larry F.
Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments. Apr2000, Vol. 9 Issue 2, p187-208. 22p. 2 Black and White Photographs, 7 Diagrams.
Digital libraries and Virtual reality
As virtual environment (VE) technology becomes accessible to (and affordable for) an ever-widening audience of users, the demand for VE applications will increase. Tools that assist and facilitate the development of these applications, therefore, will also be in demand. To support our efforts in quickly designing and implementing VE applications, we have developed the Simple Virtual Environment (SVE) library. In this article, we describe the characteristics of the library that support the development of both simple and complex VE applications. Simple applications are created by novice programmers or for rapid prototyping. More-complex applications incorporate new user input and output devices, as well as new techniques for user interaction, rendering, or animation. The SVE library provides more-comprehensive support for developing new VE applications and better supports the various device configurations of VE applications than current systems for 3-D graphical applications. The development of simple VE applications is supported through provided default interaction, rendering, and user input and output device handling. The library’s framework includes an execution framework that provides structure for incrementally adding complexity to selected tasks of an application, and an environment model that provides a layer of abstraction between the application and the device configuration actually used at runtime. This design supports rapid development of VE applications through incremental development, code reuse, and independence from hardware resources during the development. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]