Richardson, J. Jeffrey, And Others, and Denver Univ., CO. Denver Research Inst.
Armed Forces, Computer Assisted Instruction, Computer Simulation, Computer Software, Expert Systems, Field Tests, Models, Research and Development, Systems Development, and Technical Education
In keeping with current Department of Defense policies on integrated diagnostics and a reduced reliance on paper-based documentation, the concept of a portable, expert-system-based job aid and training device was proposed to assist inexperienced electronics maintenance technicians in learning to maintain sophisticated equipment. A prototype was designed and implemented for the troubleshooting portion of the F111 6883 intermediate-level avionics test station in order to investigate a variety of issues, e.g., hybrid diagnostics, knowledge engineering, and user interfaces. The phases of the project included conceptual design, development, and delivery software programming; delivery hardware prototyping; knowledge base development; field demonstration; and analysis of lessons learned. The design for the prototype incorporated both human-machine interfaces and end-user interfaces to promote incremental skill acquisition and assess the reasoning behind the diagnostic process in a troubleshooting situation. In a field demonstration, the prototype received high ratings for ease of use, speed of operation, troubleshooting accuracy, and usefulness for job aiding and training. Implications for future development focused on realizing the training potential of the system, enhancing user interfaces, and expanding the problem domain. Several illustrations are provided and the appended material includes technical data, data collection instruments, and 52 references. (DJR)
Artificial Intelligence, Computer Assisted Instruction, Computer Simulation, Foreign Countries, Higher Education, Industrial Education, Institutional Cooperation, Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Professional Training, Programmed Instructional Materials, Programmed Tutoring, Research and Development, Training Methods, and Canada
Safari is a cooperative project involving four Quebec universities, two industrial partners (Virtual Prototypes, Inc., providing the VAPS software package, and Novasys, Inc., a consulting firm specializing in artificial intelligence and training), and government. VAPS (Virtual Applications Prototyping System) is a commercial interface-building and simulation system. The main objective of Safari is to develop a methodology and an environment for the creation of tutoring systems to be used in professional training. The focus is on teaching mostly procedural knowledge concerning the operation of devices such as medical instruments, manufacturing robots, consumer appliances, control instruments, aeronautical instruments, etc. The basic idea is to add a tutoring component on top of device models (microworlds) built in VAPS. This permits the use of models written in VAPS ("virtual instruments"), instead of the real, expensive devices, for training and practice. The distinguishing features of the Safari environment are that: (1) an attempt is made to represent knowledge at two levels: at the physical level corresponding to a simulated device, and the plan level; (2) tutoring is based on four instructional modes: demonstration, exploration, coaching, and critiquing; and (3) within every mode the development of progressively more complex prototypes is foreseen, and tutoring in every mode involves the two levels of knowledge representation. The evolution of prototypes can be roughly divided into three phases according to the complexity of the knowledge structures involved, each of which is outlined. Safari prototyping of the Flo-Gard 6201 Volumetric infusion pump is descried as an example. Three figures illustrate concepts and the infusion pump prototype. (MAS)
National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA. Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering.
Computer Science, Engineering, Grants, Information Processing, Information Systems, Microelectronics, Research and Development, Sciences, and Scientific Research
The purpose of this summary of awards is to provide the scientific and engineering communities with a summary of the grants awarded in 1994 by the National Science Foundation's Division of Microelectronic Information Processing Systems. Similar areas of research are grouped together. Grantee institutions and principal investigators are identified first. Award identification numbers, award amounts, and award duration are enumerated after the individual project titles. Within each category, the awards are listed alphabetically by state and institution. Award categories are: (1) Design, Tools and Test; (2) Microelectronic Systems Architecture; (3) Circuits and Signal Processing; (4) Experimental Systems; and (5) Systems Prototyping and Fabrication. Information is provided on the background and directions of the Microelectronics Information Processing Systems (MIPS) Division, and a staff members are listed. A one-page summary lists total dollars awarded for each research category. Four indices include: Presidential Young Investigators; Research Initiation Investigators; Principal Investigators; and Institutions. (MAS)
Wang, Qiyun, Nieveen, Nienke, and van den Akker, Jan
Educational Technology Research and Development, v55 n3 p275-295 Jun 2007. 21 pp.
Curriculum Development, Instructional Design, Summative Evaluation, Foreign Countries, Multimedia Materials, Courseware, Demonstration Programs, Program Validation, Research and Development, Program Development, Program Design, Program Improvement, and China (Shanghai)
The CASCADE-MUCH system was designed to help teacher-designers in Shanghai, China with the development of instructional scenarios for multimedia curricula. After four rounds of prototyping, a summative evaluation was carried out to assess practicality. Results showed that the system was practical for the intended target users in Shanghai and also had potential for users in other contexts. The purpose of this article is to present the design process of the CASCADE-MUCH program and discuss how the evolutionary prototyping approach improved program quality and contributed to the designer's knowledge growth.
Stoof, Angela, Martens, Rob L., and van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.
Educational Technology Research and Development, v55 n4 p347-368 Aug 2007. 22 pp.
Instructional Design, Formative Evaluation, Internet, Concept Mapping, Program Validation, Courseware, Demonstration Programs, Computer Interfaces, Instructional Development, Instructional Material Evaluation, Research and Development, and Item Analysis
This article describes the design and formative evaluation of a Web-based tool that supports curriculum developers in constructing competence maps. Competence maps describe final attainment levels of educational programs in terms of--interrelated--competencies. Key requirements for the competence-mapping tool were validity and practicality. Validity refers to internal consistency and meaningful links to the external realities represented. Practicality refers to a design approach of evolutionary prototyping, in which feedback from intended users and domain experts is collected throughout the development process. Formative evaluations of four prototypes were conducted. Measures of design, appeal, goal, content, confidence and relevance showed that the tool is practical. The article describes the formative evaluation process and concludes with a description of the modified tool from the perspective of the user and the instructional designer.
Research and Development, Educational Innovation, Instructional Design, Researchers, Teachers, Cooperation, and Educational Research
We must reengineer both how we carry out educational R&D and the schools in which this work occurs if we want to achieve more productive ends. Education needs a Design, Educational Engineering, and Development infrastructure, which includes a rapid prototyping process by which researchers and practitioners co-develop innovations, try them in schools and other learning contexts, and then refine and try them again.