professional: MS/OR philosophy and programming: heuristic
Apparently MS/OR is being overtaken by newer decision aids such as decision support systems (DDS), and in addition, MS/OR has not received credit for its real contributions. This is a consequence of a narrow view of MS/OR emphasizing mathematics and neglecting such aspects as experimentation, heuristics, and modeling. A broad view of MS/OR consistent with its origins leads to a wider market of applications but risks psychological and political complications. We need to (1) take full advantage of computing hardware and software, (2) emphasize prototyping, heuristics, and modeling, as well as mathematics, and (3) promote our work not just in academic journals, but also in trade and management publications.
Peskin, Richard L., Walther, Sandra S., and Froncioni, Andy M.
Mathematics and Computers in Simulation (MATCOM), 1989, 31, 4, 371.
The need for rapid prototyping of numerical simulations is considered, and an object-oriented, graphical based system (Smalltalk) is proposed as a basis for a new approach to user interfaces for scientific computing. The interface system requirements for problem expression, automatic programming, visualization, computational steering, and concurrent computing are discussed.
programming, integer algorithms: mixed-integer programming algorithms implementation, and linear large-scale systems: algorithmic implementation for large-scale systems
APROS represents an algorithmic development procedure for classes of mathematical programming problems that involve some form of decomposition technique and require extensive communication of data between a set of subproblems whose sizes and structures may vary during the solution procedure. Examples include most classes of mixed-integer nonlinear programming problems and large-scale mixed-integer linear programming problems as well as a wide variety of algorithms for large-scale nonlinear and linear programming problems exhibiting special structure. APROS works through the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) to provide exact syntactic statement of algorithmic solution procedures. APROS procedures are implemented through GAMS which is interfaced with nonlinear, linear and mixed-integer linear programming solvers to provide completely general automated implementations of many well known algorithms including the Generalized Benders Decomposition, the Outer Approximation/Equality Relaxation and Dantzig-Wolfe Decomposition. The flexibility of APROS and the highly procedural modeling language GAMS provide a means of obtaining quick solutions to difficult classes of problems by implementing a selected algorithm, and also provide a unique tool for developing, prototyping and experimenting with new algorithms. A description of the procedural components, features and setups is presented with emphasis on the generality of the techniques.
Information Resources Management Journal (IRMJ), 1990, 3, 3, 23.
Many methodologies and techniques may be used in the development of information systems. Two widely used methodologies are: system development life cycle, and prototyping. In this article, we have extensively evaluated the two methodologies based on field data collected from information systems professionals in business and industry. Specifically, the two methodologies are evaluated for their applicability during various life cycle phases, by types of systems, and by the amount of problem structure. Various attributes associated with the methodologies have also been assessed. Our results support the use of a contingency approach for the selection of a proper methodology for systems development.
economics of information systems management, EDP auditing, information strategy and policy, organizational information processing, and system performance assessment
As corporate management attempts to extract more end user benefit from information systems department expenditures, interest has grown toward the use of information systems auditing to assure software quality. This research shows that information systems departments are motivated by end users to provide lower quality systems than they would if allowed to pursue their own objectives. The research continues by demonstrating that auditing cannot a priori be assumed to raise the quality of corporate information systems. In fact, auditing tends to establish objectives that lower software quality. It demonstrates that audits are most beneficial in managing unsophisticated information systems departments in which end users are currently dissatisfied with their level of support. Augmenting the systems development process via technologies such as computer aided software engineering and prototyping may more consistently and effectively improve quality than does auditing. Recent developments among the large audit firms indicate that they recognize the importance of new software development technology, and are restructuring their businesses accordingly.
Bolte, Christine, Kurbel, Karl, Moazzami, Mahmoud, and Pietsch, Wolfram
Arbeitsberichte des Instituts für Wirtschaftsinformatik, 1991.
Anläßlich der Entwicklung eines großen Informationssystems wurde die Entscheidung getroffen, ein Werkzeug der vierten Generation (4GL) und ein relationales Datenbanksystem (Oracle) zu verwenden. Der Beitrag beschreibt die Erfahrungen, die bei der Datenmodellierung auf Basis des Entity-Relationship-Ansatzes und der Überführung in ein Relationenmodell sowie mit den Oracle-spezifischen 4GL-Werkzeugen und der dadurch ermöglichten Entwicklungsmethodik (Prototyping) gesammelt wurden. Das Informationssystem selbst ist an anderer Stelle beschrieben).
In this paper examples are given of how modern information technology may have an impact on the way we build and use computerised models for different applications. The KBS-MEDIA (knowledge-based systems-media) group of projects is described. These projects are aimed at integrating advanced software techniques (knowledge-based systems, HyperCard from Apple Computer, etc) with new distribution and storage media. The â€˜hyperdocumentsâ€™ which are created possess powerful man-machine interface and dynamic model-building properties. The system described forms a demonstration environment used in different applications to capture, test, and communicate ideas, so allowing fast prototyping. New tools for building and using â€˜hypermediaâ€™ systems have been defined, created, and tested. These tools are adapted to the needs of the people intended to use them, by means of â€˜friendlyâ€™ interfaces. Some comments are made on the ideas behind the project, as well as on how the KBS-MEDIA environment is used in the â€˜City Advisorâ€™ application.