This article presents a novel methodology to design swash plate type axial piston machines based on computationally based approach. The methodology focuses on the design of the main lubricating interfaces present in a swash plate type unit: the cylinder block/valve plate, the piston/cylinder, and the slipper/swash plate interface. These interfaces determine the behavior of the machine in term of energy efficiency and durability. The proposed method couples for the first time the numerical models developed at the authors’ research center for each separated tribological interface in a single optimization framework. The paper details the optimization procedure, the geometry, and material considered for each part. A physical prototype was also built and tested from the optimal results found from the numerical model. Tests were performed at the authors’ lab, confirming the validity of the proposed method.
Interactive Augmented Prototyping (IAP) is a novel approach that extends the benefits of virtual prototyping to physical model making by employing Augmented Reality (AR) technologies. Although several IAP systems exist, the development of these prototypes is complicated. At present, an in-depth discussion regarding design support scenarios and relevant design domains is lacking. This article presents an overview of the enablers of IAP, including physical model making and input and display techniques. Each have their limitations and challenges, which restrict the interaction possibilities and set-up time/effort. From this palette of enabling technologies, a morphological chart was constructed. Furthermore, existing IAP applications from the literature were compared in terms of design support and technologies. An important finding is that existing IAP systems limit the level of interaction, thus restricting the benefits. More elaborate applications should be developed. Finally, a more elaborate method to assess the impact of IAP is required.
Heng Li, Hongling Guo, Miroslaw Skibniewski, and Martin Skitmore
Construction Management and Economics, 2008, 26, 9, 991.
IKEA model, site operations, and virtual prototyping
Learning from manufacturing industries is a useful approach to improving the productivity of the construction industry and to solve problems arising from construction processes. Through the use of virtual prototyping (VP) technology, the lean production process engaged in the IKEA business model (IKEA model) is studied and implemented in a real-life construction project. Specifically, based on the analysis of the IKEA model, the IKEA model can be applied to optimize construction processes and simplify management activities. A case study is analysed to demonstrate the improvement of construction process management through using the VP-IKEA approach.
Cicconi, Paolo, Landi, Daniele, and Germani, Michele
Applied Energy, 2017, 192, C, 159.
Electric vehicle, Li-ion batteries, Virtual prototyping, Battery cooling, and Battery configuration
The scope of the present research is the reduction of cost and time related to the design, prototyping and testing of a Li-ion battery pack, which is used in commercial full electric vehicles using tools for rapid product configuration and simulation. This objective is particularly important for small companies that produce many different batteries in small lots. To develop the product design support system, a preliminary study was necessary. A 3D model was analyzed to simulate real thermal behavior, reproducing a real electric load using a standard ECE-15 cycle. Experimental tests have been conducted on the vehicle and battery to validate the model. An analytical thermal model was developed to evaluate the heat generated by electrochemical reactions inside a Li-ion cell. The outcome of this analytical model was used as the boundary condition in the CFD simulation of the battery model to evaluate the cooling behavior. The rules and results deduced from these studies have allowed the implementation of an easy-to-use knowledge-based configuration tool that supports the designer in the definition of the layout of the battery pack to save time and evaluate costs. As a test case, the battery for an urban freight vehicle was designed using the proposed approach. The achieved results show good performance and robustness of the simplified approach in terms of temperature distribution evaluation and design process efficiency.
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education, 2017, 3, 1, 189.
virtual prototyping, simulation, powertrain, and H2iL
The paper examines the problem of developing cost effective teaching and research tools for automotive dynamics. Different available solutions are presented and the need of human feedback is emphasized. Based on the demands from industry and academia (benchmarking, virtual prototyping, comparative testing of alternative technologies, development and tuning of the automotive control etc.) a solution is proposed. At the core of the proposed tool is a H2iL (humanand- hardware-in-the-loop) simulator based on an electric vehicle. An architecture is elaborated for the simulator and the proof of concept is done in three steps.
Cicconi, Paolo, Landi, Daniele, Germani, Michele, and Russo, Anna Costanza
Applied Energy, 2017, 206, C, 222.
Ecodesign, Energy label, Knowledge-based engineering, Product configuration, Virtual prototyping, and Optimization
In Europe, kitchen hoods currently come with an energy label showing their energy efficiency class and other information regarding the energy consumption and noise level, as established by the European Energy Labelling Directive. Because of recent regulations, designs of cooker hoods must consider new issues, such as the evaluation of the energy efficiency, analysis of the energy consumption, and product lifecycle impact. Therefore, the development of eco-driven products requires Ecodesign tools to support eco-innovation and related sustainability improvements. The scope of the proposed research is to define a method and an agile and affordable platform tool that can support designers in the early estimation of product energy performance, including the calculation of energy efficiency indexes. The approach also considers the use of genetic algorithm methods to optimize the product configuration in terms of energy efficiency. The research context concerns large and small productions of kitchen hoods. The paper describes the methodological approach within the developed tool. The results show a good correlation between real efficiency values and calculated ones. A validation activity has been described, and a test case shows how to apply the proposed approach for the design of a new efficient product with an A-class Energy Efficiency Index.
The quality of electroplating products depends upon conformance to requirements of the customer. These requirements are translated into design specifications of all the contributing factors and subsystems up to component level of the electroplating system. The quality of interaction amongst different subsystems, sub-subsystems and other factors that affect the quality of products are considered here. These are modelled using graph theory and matrix algebra as quality graph, quality matrix and quality permanent function of the electroplating product. A number of analytical tests derived from these models help to carry out optimum selection of qualities of subsystems and interactions for designing competitive electroplating products. Evaluation, ranking and comparison procedures can be developed with the help of models proposed herein. Coefficients of similarity and dissimilarity are developed for comparison among feasible products. This is, basically, a virtual prototyping methodology of the complete system, ideal in the production of high quality competitive electroplating products.
A physics-based cloth modelling system has been proposed, targeted at the virtual prototyping of garments of real interest and production. The system should allow designers to validate their styling/design choices on a digital apparel model before (or in place of) any physical prototyping. Taking into account the design complexity of real tailored apparel, CAD apparel models can be defined incorporating information about tailoring/assembly features. A graphical interface allows a user to create his/her garment by interactively specifying design elements such as layers, seams, pockets, constraints, aesthetic and functional lines. A discrete Newtonian particle-based model is considered for physics-based cloth simulation, originally defined for single textile layers and then extended to real-shaped apparel, by taking into account structural properties of materials and the previously defined design/assembly rules. Several garment models are proposed as test cases, designed for real apparel manufacturing and simulated on virtual mannequins.
Heng Li, H. L. Guo, Martin Skitmore, Ting Huang, K. Y. N. Chan, and Greg Chan
Construction Management and Economics, 2011, 29, 3, 233.
Prefabricated construction, IKEA model, Virtual Prototyping, design optimization, and construction optimization
Prefabricated construction is regarded by many as an effective and efficient approach to improving construction processes and productivity, ensuring construction quality and reducing time and cost in the construction industry. However, many problems occur with this approach in practice, including higher risk levels and cost or time overruns. In order to solve such problems, it is proposed that the IKEA model of the manufacturing industry and VP technology are introduced into a prefabricated construction process. The concept of the IKEA model is identified in detail and VP technology is briefly introduced. In conjunction with VP technology, the applications of the IKEA model are presented in detail, i.e. design optimization, production optimization and installation optimization. Furthermore, through a case study of a prefabricated hotel project in Hong Kong, it is shown that the VP-based IKEA model can improve the efficiency and safety of prefabricated construction as well as reducing cost and time.
Giorgio Colombo, Franco De Angelis, and Luca Formentini
International Journal of Product Development, 2010, 11, 1/2, 47.
virtual reality, haptics, virtual prototyping, ergonomic tests, control boards, ergonomics, human factors, digital modelling, tactile interaction, ergonomic workstations, visualisation, human body tracking, and haptic devices.
This work presents the results of a research project that evaluated the possibility to carry out ergonomic analyses on virtual prototypes that permitted tactile interaction. We propose an approach based on Virtual Reality (VR) and haptics: the former to improve visual rendering of a digital model, the latter to permit tactile interaction. The products considered were control boards. Atomic components such as knobs, sliders and buttons are employed. The paper presents the architecture of an ergonomic workstation and its first implementation based on commercial systems and ad hoc haptic devices specifically developed for the purpose. Major problems related to a VR environment, such as visualisation and human body tracking, are discussed; the architecture of haptic devices and technical solutions to achieve a satisfactory haptic rendering are presented. Finally, the paper proposes a test procedure and presents the results of tests on the behaviour of ergonomic workstation components. Work in progress and future developments conclude the paper.
International Journal of Product Development, 2010, 11, 1/2, 25.
haptic modelling, conceptual design, product design, virtual prototyping, product development, haptics, CAD, computer-aided design, digital shapes, force computation, chip formation, and product modelling.
The paper presents the results of a research project aiming to develop an innovative framework for the conceptual design of products based on haptic technology. The system consists of a Computer-Aided Design (CAD) system enhanced with intuitive designer-oriented interaction tools and modalities. The system integrates innovative haptic tools with 6 Degrees of Freedom (DOF) for modelling digital shapes, with sweep operators applied to class-A surfaces and force computation models based on chip formation models. The system aims to exploit designers' skills in modelling products, improving the products' design process by reducing the necessity to build several physical models for the evaluation and testing of product designs. The system requirements have been defined after observing designers during their daily work and translating the way they model shapes using their hands and craft tools into specifications for the system. The system has been tested by designers, who have found it intuitive and effective to use.
Virtual Prototyping (VP) technology has been widely used to reduce the cost in the development of modern products. However, a typical mechatronic product includes the components from different engineering domains and its complexity keeps on increasing. Therefore, it becomes a great challenge to efficiently achieve VP of mechatronic products. A solution presented in this paper chooses Solution Elements (SE) as the basic design component, which encapsulates various engineering expertise. In addition, a conceptual model of ports and joints are created to compose those virtual components into mechatronic prototypes in a virtual environment. To reveal the achievement of our solution, this paper will concretely explicate (1) the definition of the conceptual models of SE, ports and joints; (2) the procedure and the matching guide in doing the system composition; (3) some interaction and visualisation issues to SE, ports and joints and (4) how team work is supported in the implementation work.
This paper introduces an approach towards modelling and validation of mechanisms in the conceptual design phase applying virtual reality techniques and kinematics simulation. The presented system allows to interactively assemble mechanisms and to experience their behaviour within the same process. The described approach incrementally builds kinematic chains reducing stepwise degrees of freedom. Kinematics is expressed in terms of joints by geometric constraints, which are solved in real time during interaction with the virtual prototype.