Florinda Matos, Radu Godina, Celeste Jacinto, Helena Carvalho, Inês Ribeiro, and Paulo Peças
Sustainability, 2019, 11, 14, 1.
additive manufacturing, social change, social impacts, 3D printing, and rapid prototyping
Despite the myriad of possibilities and applications of additive manufacturing (AM) technology, knowledge about the social impacts of this technology is very scarce and very limited in some areas. This paper explores how factors generated by the development of AM technology may create social impacts, affecting the health and social well-being of people, quality of life, working conditions, and the creation of wealth. This paper presents the results of an exploratory multiple case study conducted among four Portuguese organizations that use AM technology, aiming to determine their perceptions regarding the social impacts of AM, its effects, and causes. The results confirm that AM technology is mainly seen to create positive impacts on health and safety (regarding physical hazards), on expectations for the future, on leisure and recreation, on low disruption with the local economy, on economic prosperity, on the professional status, and on innovative employment types. Nevertheless, a negative impact was also found on health and safety (concerning hazardous substances), as well as several mixed and null impacts. The main limitations of the research arise from the use of a case study methodology, since the results can be influenced by contextual factors, such as the size of the organizations in the sample, and/or social, cultural, technological, political, economic, and ecological factors. This study gives an up-to-date contribution to the topic of AM social impacts and social changes, an area which is still little-explored in the literature.
S. Sam Chelladurai, Rajesh Ranganathan, and B. Sanjay Gandhi
International Journal of Product Development, 2019, 23, 2/3, 162.
additive manufacturing, large scale prototyping, information system in additive manufacturing, and computer application in mechanical engineering.
The present additive manufacturing methods limit to size and the time taken to manufacture the components is also limited because of the layering approach. A layer-less approach is proposed, which is based on arranging different sizes of cubes to achieve the final product. An algorithm is developed and manufacturing feasibility is simulated using CATIA software and its macros. It was found that the components can be manufactured using this additive manufacturing method without the layer approach. The proposed additive manufacturing method and the algorithm can be applied to additive manufacturing situations demanding very large components to be manufactured with less amount of time.
Chambon, Paul, Curran, Scott, Huff, Shean, Love, Lonnie, Post, Brian, Wagner, Robert, Jackson, Roderick, and Green, Johney
Applied Energy, 2017, 191, C, 99.
Printed vehicle, Range extender, Additive manufacturing, Rapid prototyping, Hybrid vehicles, and Natural gas
Rapid vehicle and powertrain development has become essential to for the design and implementation of vehicles that meet and exceed the fuel efficiency, cost, and performance targets expected by today’s consumer while keeping pace with reduced development cycle and more frequent product releases. Recently, advances in large-scale additive manufacturing have provided the means to bridge hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) experimentation and preproduction mule chassis evaluation. This paper details the accelerated development of a printed range-extended electric vehicle (REEV) by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, by paralleling hardware-in-the-loop development of the powertrain with rapid chassis prototyping using big area additive manufacturing (BAAM). BAAM’s ability to accelerate the mule vehicle development from computer-aided design to vehicle build is explored. The use of a hardware-in-the-loop laboratory is described as it is applied to the design of a range-extended electric powertrain to be installed in a printed prototype vehicle. The integration of the powertrain and the opportunities and challenges it presents are described in this work. A comparison of offline simulation, HIL and chassis rolls results is presented to validate the development process. Chassis dynamometer results for battery electric and range extender operation are analyzed to show the benefits of the architecture.
Swayam Bikash Mishra, Rashmi Pattnaik, and Siba Sankar Mahapatra
International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management, 2017, 21, 3, 375.
additive manufacturing, fused depositing modelling, rapid prototyping, analysis of variance, ANOVA, response surface methodology, RSM, and least square support vector machine.
Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is one of the proficient technologies among all rapid prototyping (RP) processes due to its capability to build durable end-use parts with reasonable mechanical strength. FDM process has the ability to develop 3D complex geometry accurately with less time and material waste as compared to other RP processes. However, mechanical wear unfavourably affects the durability and lifespan of the FDM build part when used as an end-use part. It has been observed that few important FDM process parameters significantly determine the mechanical strength, wear resistance and surface roughness of build parts. Since wear is an important phenomenon influencing functionality of a part, effect of six FDM build parameters viz. contour number, layer thickness, raster width, part orientation, raster angle and air gap on sliding wear of the specimen is experimentally investigated in this research work. Using analysis of variance (ANOVA), effect of each process parameter on wear of the build specimen is analysed. From the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images, wear surfaces and internal structures of the specimens are evaluated. Finally, a model based on least square support vector machine (LSSVM) technique is proposed to predict the wear performance of the FDM build parts.
3-D printing, Additive manufacturing, Rapid prototyping, Global supply chain, and Mass customization
The use of additive manufacturing technologies in different industries has increased substantially during the past years. Henry Ford introduced the moving assembly line that enabled mass production of identical products in the 20th century. Currently, additive manufacturing enables and facilitates production of moderate to mass quantities of products that can be customized individually. Additive manufacturing technologies are opening new opportunities in terms of production paradigm and manufacturing possibilities. Manufacturing lead times will be reduced substantially, new designs will have shorter time to market, and customer demand will be met more quickly. This article identifies additive manufacturing implementation challenges, highlights its evolving technologies and trends and their impact on the world of tomorrow, discusses its advantages over traditional manufacturing, explores its impact on the supply chain, and investigates its transformative potential and impact on various industry segments.
The production, diffusion and preservation of knowledge are the main goals of universities, which are critical nodes for mediating intellectual capital. In recent years, 3D printing (additive manufacturing) technologies are emerging as a possible disruptive or transformative force in the knowledge economy and by extension the material economy as consumers are given the affordance of materializing information into real-world objects. To understand the role universities will play in this potential convergence of the material and knowledge economies, this paper surveys current levels of involvement of tertiary institutions in 3D printing. The paper projects how the materialization of data will affect a range of social dynamics for creators-cum-consumers at different scales: community, region and nation-state and applies case studies to the multilevel perspective (MLP) framework. Studies are considered in three empirical cases: Berlin in Germany, Lancashire in the United Kingdom, and the United States. The research indicates that the National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute (NAMII) ‘America Makes’ Program is a top-down knowledge dissemination program for 3D printing. In contrast, the UK Lancaster University Product Development Unit (LPDU) is a 3D-printing value-network, which has developed organically over a decade of operation. Fablab Berlin is a local initiative loosely coupled with industry and tertiary education providers. The paper proposes a future-oriented conceptual framework to capture a variety of present-day university engagements with additive manufacturing in terms of intellectual capital.
Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 2016, 102, C, 225.
3D printing, Additive manufacturing, Business models, Digital fabrication, Glocalized production, Rapid manufacturing, Rapid prototyping, and Supply chains
Digital fabrication—including additive manufacturing (AM), rapid prototyping and 3D printing—has the potential to revolutionize the way in which products are produced and delivered to the customer. Therefore, it challenges companies to reinvent their business model—describing the logic of creating and capturing value. In this paper, we explore the implications that AM technologies have for manufacturing systems in the new business models that they enable. In particular, we consider how a consumer goods manufacturer can organize the operations of a more open business model when moving from a manufacturer-centric to a consumer-centric value logic. A major shift includes a move from centralized to decentralized supply chains, where consumer goods manufacturers can implement a “hybrid” approach with a focus on localization and accessibility or develop a fully personalized model where the consumer effectively takes over the productive activities of the manufacturer. We discuss some of the main implications for research and practice of consumer-centric business models and the changing decoupling point in consumer goods' manufacturing supply chains.
Baumers, Martin, Dickens, Phill, Tuck, Chris, and Hague, Richard
Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 2016, 102, C, 193.
Additive manufacturing, Rapid manufacturing, Rapid prototyping, 3D printing, Digital fabrication, Production cost, Productivity, and Economies of scale
As part of the cosmos of digital fabrication technology, Additive Manufacturing (AM) systems are able to manufacture three-dimensional components and products directly from raw material and 3D design data. The layer-by-layer operating process of these systems does not require the use of tools, moulds or dies.
3-D printing, Rapid prototyping, Additive manufacturing, Rapid tooling, Digital manufacturing, and Bridge manufacturing
This article examines the characteristics and applications of 3-D printing and compares it with mass customization and other manufacturing processes. 3-D printing enables small quantities of customized goods to be produced at relatively low costs. While currently used primarily to manufacture prototypes and mockups, a number of promising applications exist in the production of replacement parts, dental crowns, and artificial limbs, as well as in bridge manufacturing. 3-D printing has been compared to such disruptive technologies as digital books and music downloads that enable consumers to order their selections online, allow firms to profitably serve small market segments, and enable companies to operate with little or no unsold finished goods inventory. Some experts have also argued that 3-D printing will significantly reduce the advantages of producing small lot sizes in low-wage countries via reduced need for factory workers.