Bank, Adrianne and Institute for Development of Educational Activities, Dayton, OH.
Behavioral Objectives, Change Agents, Educational Innovation, Group Dynamics, Instructional Design, Instructional Materials, Program Development, Program Evaluation, Summative Evaluation, Systems Approach, and Teacher Administrator Relationship
Instructional product development--the purpose of which has been to create materials which produce in an identified population of users demonstrable changes in behavior, in accordance with prespecified and specific objectives--generally adheres to a pattern which includes planning, formulating, prototyping measures and materials, field testing, revising and retesting, and summative evaluation. To the project staff at the Institute for Development of Educational Activities, Inc. (IDEA), this cycle seemed worthwhile to explore in terms of producing materials which would enable groups to improve interpersonal problem-solving skills. Thus, IDEA developed materials designed to help teachers and principal work together more collaboratively and systematically in solving school problems. Field tests of the materials indicated the need for revisions, and evaluations of the program are currently formative. However, the use of product development strategies for organizational development has proven to be of value in serving as a research tool, in forcing clarification of desired outcomes and principles used to attain them, and in expanding our knowledge base with its empirical approach. (SH)
Hampel, Viktor E., And Others, and California Univ., Livermore. Lawrence Livermore Lab.
Access to Information, Communications Satellites, Computer Networks, Data Analysis, Information Retrieval, Information Systems, Information Transfer, Man Machine Systems, Models, Technology Transfer, and Telephone Communications Systems
TIS (Technology Information System) is being used at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop software for Intelligent Gateway Computers (IGC) suitable for the prototyping of advanced, integrated information networks. Dedicated to information management, TIS leads the user to available information resources, on TIS or elsewhere, by means of a master directory and automated access procedures. Other geographically distributed information centers available through TIS include six federal and commercial systems in the United States, one in France, and one in West Germany. This overview of the system summarizes the following aspects of TIS: (1) Automated Access Procedures; (2) Creation of Program-Dependent Information Systems; (3) Data Analysis and Modeling; (4) Communications; (5) The META-MACHINE User Interface; (6) Technology Transfer; (7) Information Networks; (8) Integrity and Security; (9) Future Plans; and (10) Acknowledgements and Sponsors. The text is supplemented with diagrams and illustrations, and 17 references are provided. (KM)
Letmanyi, Helen and National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC. Inst. for Computer Sciences and Technology.
Benchmarking, Computer Simulation, Computer Software, Computers, Contracts, Costs, Data Analysis, Equipment Evaluation, Evaluation Criteria, Evaluation Methods, Federal Programs, Models, and Purchasing
Developed to identify and qualitatively assess computer system evaluation techniques for use during acquisition of general purpose computer systems, this document presents several criteria for comparison and selection. An introduction discusses the automatic data processing (ADP) acquisition process and the need to plan for uncertainty through contractual flexibility. Current constraints in evaluating computer systems are identified. Decision factors which affect the choice of evaluation techniques are examined, including both agency-dependent factors and general factors such as conformance with federal procurement regulations, accuracy, cost, perceived fairness/acceptibility to vendors, and ease of understanding. The following evaluation techniques are then appraised with regard to those parameters: proposal data analysis, applying experience of the evaluator(s), instruction timing analysis, rating charts analysis, analytic modeling and simulation, benchmarking (timed benchmark tests and functional demonstrations), and prototyping. Additional information on the use of evaluation techniques is included as well as appendices containing a three-page reference list, a list of organizational information sources, and additional guidelines on benchmarking. (Author/LMM)
Content Area Writing, Coordination, Curriculum Development, Financial Support, Higher Education, Models, Program Development, Program Implementation, and Writing Instruction
The anchor of successful writing-across-the-curriculum programs is an organized nucleus of features called the four Ps: planning, proposing, preparing, and prototyping. Planning requires organization and connections among the mechanisms of designing and implementing both program activities and evaluation designs. It should begin at least two years before the program begins and then continue throughout the life of the program. Planning also requires evaluation designs that are internal as well as external, formative as well as summative. Proposing, like planning, is recursive because, after the initial proposal is submitted to internal and external sources of funding, the institution finds itself proposing still more ways to extend, expand, or continue what was begun. Preparing requires orienting all people at the institution for the program before, during, and after implementation. The nature of the preparation for faculty is largely dependent on the project administration's ability to look to and beyond English faculty in making writing across the curriculum happen. The final cycle, prototyping, sets a program apart from others. It is what constitutes model programs and insures their long-term maintenance. There are representative prototypes of parts if not of whole programs that have influenced program development elsewhere. If any aspect of writing across the curriculum is replicable, the value of such a program has far-reaching effects beyond the interest of its home institution. (HOD)
Computer Oriented Programs, Databases, Delivery Systems, Higher Education, Information Centers, Information Needs, Institutional Research, Research Utilization, Use Studies, and Users (Information)
The role of information research centers in institutional research activities was explored, based on 1,040 requests for student data at an information center at the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, during 1980-1985. Three distinct information center markets were identified and mechanisms for serving each market were recommended. The first was the routine clerical market, needing fairly simple list processing of individual cases (students) in specified subgroups. This market was the largest one for the center and was best served with downloads of selected information to microcomputers. The second was the complex clerical market needing complex computed reports of individual cases. This market was growing and was best served through rapid prototyping of mainframe production reports. The third was the decision support market, needing summary statistics across many subgroups. This market was the traditional one served by institutional research and had a strong need for data interpretation services. It was best served by traditional research reports and factbooks, as well as on demand production reports and a summary statistics database. Attention was directed to ways that old and new style information center functions can be integrated. (SW)
Richardson, J. Jeffrey, And Others, and Denver Univ., CO. Denver Research Inst.
Armed Forces, Computer Assisted Instruction, Computer Simulation, Computer Software, Expert Systems, Field Tests, Models, Research and Development, Systems Development, and Technical Education
In keeping with current Department of Defense policies on integrated diagnostics and a reduced reliance on paper-based documentation, the concept of a portable, expert-system-based job aid and training device was proposed to assist inexperienced electronics maintenance technicians in learning to maintain sophisticated equipment. A prototype was designed and implemented for the troubleshooting portion of the F111 6883 intermediate-level avionics test station in order to investigate a variety of issues, e.g., hybrid diagnostics, knowledge engineering, and user interfaces. The phases of the project included conceptual design, development, and delivery software programming; delivery hardware prototyping; knowledge base development; field demonstration; and analysis of lessons learned. The design for the prototype incorporated both human-machine interfaces and end-user interfaces to promote incremental skill acquisition and assess the reasoning behind the diagnostic process in a troubleshooting situation. In a field demonstration, the prototype received high ratings for ease of use, speed of operation, troubleshooting accuracy, and usefulness for job aiding and training. Implications for future development focused on realizing the training potential of the system, enhancing user interfaces, and expanding the problem domain. Several illustrations are provided and the appended material includes technical data, data collection instruments, and 52 references. (DJR)
Lazinger, Susan S., Shoval, Peretz, and Illinois Univ., Urbana. Graduate School of Library and Information Science.
Academic Libraries, Case Studies, Computer Software, Foreign Countries, Higher Education, Information Systems, Library Automation, Microcomputers, Models, Online Catalogs, Research Methodology, Systems Analysis, Systems Development, and User Satisfaction (Information)
This report examines and evaluates the application of prototyping methodology in the design of a microcomputer-based online library catalog. The methodology for carrying out the research involves a five-part examination of the problem on both the theoretical and applied levels, each of which is discussed in a separate section as follows: (1) a discussion of the standard life cycle in information systems development, particularly library systems development, as defined in the literature; (2) a definition of prototyping as perceived in some of the more recent literature of systems development, a discussion of the two distinct types of prototyping in use in software engineering, and a presentation of the model of prototyping roles; (3) adaptation of the model of prototyping roles to the specific configuration in the presence of which prototyping is suggested as a design methodology for a microcomputer-based online library catalog; (4) analysis of the use of prototyping methodology in the design of a microcomputer-based catalog in the Library of the Graduate Library School of Hebrew University; and (5) an evaluation of prototyping as a viable systems development methodology for libraries. The text is supplemented by two tables and five figures, and 107 references are provided. (KM)
Lewis, R., Mace, T. D., and Lancaster Univ. (England). Dept. of Psychology.
Authoring Aids (Programing), Computer Assisted Instruction, Computer Software Development, Courseware, Foreign Countries, Research Needs, and Training
This report summarizes the discussions at a seminar which provided the opportunity for 15 researchers and developers from the United Kingdom and other European countries to consider a number of short, medium, and long-term issues and assist in setting an agenda for future phases of research. The specific goals were: (1) to identify the tools necessary for the effective support of existing authors or development teams of computer-supported learning or training materials (short term goal); (2) to indicate where advanced developments in this and related fields might lead to better computer-based training development tools (medium term goal); and (3) to suggest areas of fundamental research which are needed to underpin more effective courseware development tools for the future (long term goal). General issues covered included computer-based training and users of authoring tools. Several topics related to what tools are needed to improve current practice are then considered, i.e., the limitations of current authoring systems; problems to be solved with better tools; assessment of organizational needs; analysis of training needs; design; prototyping tools; and user modelling. Software engineering techniques are described, including simulation and modelling, Smalltalk and direct-manipulation interfaces, HyperCard, integration, and expert systems. Several issues of instructional and learning strategies are summarized. The report concludes with outlines of tools and techniques that need to be developed and issues for the research on which such development depends. A list of seminar participants is appended. (MES)
Bestebreurtje, R. and Twente Univ., Enschede (Netherlands). Dept. of Education.
Communications, Educational Technology, Foreign Countries, International Programs, and Models
This report describes the DELTA (Development of European Learning through Technological Advance) Pre-Pilot project, which was designed to develop a European Learning System Reference Model that would bring structure into discussions of European Learning Technology, and would function as an intermediary and consensus-identifying tool. The first section of the report provides the background on project organization and assumptions. The second section summarizes some of the activities and conclusions of the four project task forces on: (1) definition, selection, and validation; (2) standards and interoperability; (3) educational requirements; and (4) authoring and prototyping. The model is shown in the third section, represented by a cubic framework with activities, actors, and resources as the three dimensions, and descriptive terms assigned to each dimension. Applications of the model as a communication tool, as a guide to critical processes, and as a reference to critical issues are assessed in the fourth section. The final section offers an overview of the next phase of the DELTA program and suggests further elaboration of the model. Three references are listed, and a detailed overview of the terms associated with the cubic framework is appended. (MES)
Lewis, R., Mace, Terry, Economic and Social Research Council, Lancaster (England)., and Lancaster Univ. (England). Dept. of Psychology.
Authoring Aids (Programing), Computer Assisted Instruction, Computer Simulation, Computer Software Development, Courseware, Foreign Countries, Higher Education, Models, Training, and United Kingdom (Great Britain)
This paper describes a project which aims to create an authoring environment for simulation-based training in order to illustrate features necessary for: (1) an environment which can be used by teachers/trainers with minimum technical skills; (2) rapid prototyping by all courseware producers; (3) and tools for model building. The paper begins with a section summarizing results of an earlier survey of commercial and educational producers of computer-based training materials. The second section outlines training, authoring, delivery, and development requirements for simulation courseware, and the third section lists overall project requirements. The fourth section describes the current phase of the project, i.e., the production of a demonstration toolkit. Requirements for prototype courseware are summarized in the fifth section, including general requirements, courseware functionality, and assumptions. The sixth section presents prototype model requirements, covering general requirements, typical model components, and the nature of required models. The seventh section lists demonstration phase toolkit requirements, including general requirements, modelling tools, and authoring and learner interface tools. General, modelling, and authoring requirements not addressed by the demonstrator phase are discussed in the eighth section. The appendix includes a description of two courseware products to be produced in the demonstration phase and a list of the abstract properties of model objects. (MES)