Usó, Vanessa Ghiraldeli, Sandnes, Frode Eika, and Medola, Fausto Orsi
Usó, V.G., Sandnes, F.E. & Medola, F.O. (2020). Using virtual reality and rapid prototyping to co-create together with hospitalized children. In: M. Di Nicolantonio, E. Rossi & T. Alexander (Eds.). Advances in additive manufacturing, modeling systems and 3D prototyping: Proceedings of the AHFE 2019 International Conference on Additive Manufacturing, Modeling Systems and 3D Prototyping, 2020 (pp. 279-288) Cham: Springer
In recent years, the Forecasting Innovation Pathway approach (FIP) has shown to be a promising set of tools to capture potential developments in emerging fields through capturing indications of endogenous futures. However, the FIP approach is reliant on a clear demarcated area to study, a challenge for emerging technology fields where uncertainty and rhetoric abound. This paper presents an addition to the FIP toolbox that helps characterise and demarcate boundaries of emerging fields to allow for deeper analysis through other FIP methods. We illustrate this approach through an exercise for 3D printing technology (also known as Additive Manufacturing). We show that 3D printing can be represented by a dominant design: a tri-partite configuration of printer, material and digital design software. In the past decade we have seen significant branching from applications in rapid-prototyping to medical, fashion, aeronautics and supply chain management with a variety of elements coming together in tri-partite configurations. The paper adds to the current FTA literature an approach building on evolutionary theories of technical change to help with such situations – emerging, evolving and branching 'innovation pathways'. Moreover, we developed a methodology to construct these innovation paths. • New technology fields can be represented as paths that build momentum, fork and evolve. • Forecasting Innovation Pathways (FIP) require a further developed theory of path emergence and evolution. • 3D printing can be represented by a dominant design: a tri-partite configuration that is filled in a variety of ways. • 3D printing is a field which evolved first around prototyping applications and has branched out to new applications. • The interplay of foreseen applications and the filling of the tri-partite schema motivate branching from rapid prototyping. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Over the past years, product designers have been involved in collaborative developments of smart material composites early on in the development process, to showcase creative applications of them. In these projects, the way the material is presented to the development team and the extent to which its properties are defined affect how designers understand the potentials and boundaries of the material and envision product applications. In the context of a European project, Light.Touch.Matters, we studied the attempt of designers to understand and prototype underdeveloped composites of thin-film organic light emitting diodes and piezoelectric polymer. Arguing for a collaborative exploration of the unique experiences that such underdeveloped composites unfold, we elaborate on a challenge designers face in understanding and prototyping the experiential qualities, specifically, the dynamic and performative qualities. The paper presents our design approach and complementary tools to overcome this challenge. It further discusses the applicability and limitations of the proposed design supports in the context of collaborative materials development and outlines future research directions. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, ENGINEERING systems, LITERATURE reviews, ENGINEERING design, NEW product development, and TECHNICAL literature
Given the need to develop a systems engineering framework to enable rapid prototyping and rapid fielding capability for the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) per Public Law 114-92 and the fact that historically rework has been a problem during product development, a literature survey of engineering and design rework was conducted to better understand its nature and causes. The intent of the survey is to present the current state of research in the understanding of this aspect of development and to articulate future research areas for developing a systems engineering framework during the Technology Maturation and Risk Reduction (TMRR) phase of the DOD life cycle that addresses rework concerns, accelerates iteration and enables rapid prototyping. Since much of the research on rework has been done on information exchange and organizational structure there is a need for future research in systems engineering to develop frameworks to: 1) mitigate the impact of information uncertainty and instability, 2) accelerate information evolution, and 3) reuse knowledge for engineering reasoning. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, BIOSENSORS, ARTIFICIAL neural networks, and BASES (Architecture)
The paper aims to explore the potential offered by nanotechnologies for the development of a new generation of reconfigurable and robust Nano-biosensors for the purpose of implementation in medical applications The subject proposes to make a contribution in the field of Nano-biosensors by organizing itself around several scientific objectives, multidisciplinary technologies • Demonstrate the interface with reconfigurable architectures based on FPGA/NoC to drive the Nano-biosensors • specify Platform model based on neural networks that can be adapted to Nano biosensors experimental context. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bryden, Douglas (Designer), author. and Bryden, Douglas (Designer), author.
Industrial design -- Computer-aided design -- Case studies., Product design -- Computer-aided design -- Case studies., Computer-aided design., Rapid prototyping., Industrial design -- Data processing -- Case studies., Industrial design -- Data processing., and Case studies.
Computer-aided design (CAD) and rapid prototyping (RP) are now a fundamental part of the professional practice of product design and are therefore essential skills for product design undergraduate students. This book provides students with all the tools needed to get to grips with the range of both CAD software and RP processes used in the industry.
Sloyan, Karen, Melkonyan, Henrik, and Dahlem, Marcus S.
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology; Apr2020, Vol. 107 Issue 11/12, p4469-4480, 12p, 2 Black and White Photographs, 15 Diagrams, 2 Charts
FOCUSED ion beams, OPTICAL glass, MATERIALS science, RAPID prototyping, SEMICONDUCTOR materials, and OPTICAL fibers
Focused ion beam (FIB) milling is widely used in fields such as the semiconductor industry and materials science research. The direct writing and small feature size also make FIB milling attractive for rapid prototyping of novel photonic structures. In this manuscript, we describe in detail a FIB milling procedure which enables high-resolution fabrication of complex micro- and nanostructures with precise geometry control. Two different procedures (for 2D and 3D structures) are described and implemented on the tip of a glass optical fiber for fabricating diverse structures embedded on or below the tip surface. The procedures described here can be easily adjusted and implemented on any conductive or non-conductive substrate. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Haller, Norm, author. and National Research Council (U.S.). Air Force Studies Board, issuing body.
Prototypes, Engineering -- Congresses., Rapid prototyping -- Congresses., and Military research -- United States -- Planning -- Congresses.
"Assessment to Enhance Air Force and Department of Defense Prototyping for the New Defense Strategy is the summary of a workshop convened by the Air Force Studies Board of the National Academies' National Research Council in September 2013 to enhance Air Force and Department of Defense (DoD) prototyping for the new defense strategy. This workshop examined of a wide range of prototyping issues, including individual recommendations for a renewed prototype program, application of prototyping as a tool for technology/system development and sustainment (including annual funding), and positive and negative effects of a renewed program. Prototyping has historically been of great benefit to the Air Force and DoD in terms of risk reduction and concept demonstration prior to system development, advancing new technologies, workforce enhancement and skills continuity between major acquisitions, dissuasion of adversaries by demonstrating capabilities, maintaining technological surprise through classified technologies, and an overarching strategy of overall risk reduction during austere budget environments. Over the last two decades, however, many issues with prototyping have arisen. For example, the definitions and terminology associated with prototyping have been convoluted and budgets for prototyping have been used as offsets to remedy budget shortfalls. Additionally, prototyping has been done with no strategic intent or context, and both government and industry have misused prototyping as a key tool in the DoD and defense industrial base. Assessment to Enhance Air Force and Department of Defense Prototyping for the New Defense Strategy envisions a prototyping program that encourages innovation in new concepts and approaches and provides a means to assess and reduce risk before commitment to major new programs."--Publisher's description.
Erichsen, Jorgen Falck, Wulvik, Andreas, Steinert, Martin, and Welo, Torgeir
Procedia CIRP; 2019, Vol. 84, p566-571, 6p
Prototyping is one of the core activities of product development, and understanding prototyping should therefore be of great interest to both researchers and professionals. Yet, when considering the many definitions of prototype in engineering design literature, prototyping is not fully understood. Aimed at engineering design researchers, this article compares various efforts that attempt to understand prototyping by capturing design activity. This comparison is used as a basis for discussing various methods, tools and resources available to the engineering design researcher, as well as the contexts of the studies (i.e. laboratory, intermediate and in-situ studies). From this comparison of studies on capturing prototyping in engineering design research, the authors identify that many of the studies have relatively low robustness—i.e. the ability to generalize and apply the findings to a wider engineering design context. The authors argue that the factors that contribute to the relatively low robustness of these studies are a combination of the methods, tools and resources (including participants) available to the researchers for both capturing and analyzing the data. Therefore, the authors conclude that to increase the robustness of research on prototyping in engineering design—i.e. ensure that relevant, realistic and representative data is captured—more suitable tools and methods are needed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Gerstenberg, Achim, Sjöman, Heikki, and Steinert, Martin
Procedia CIRP; 2019, Vol. 84, p33-37, 5p
Building prototypes is an essential element in conceptual design. We argue that using resources to build prototypes may induce adherence to the chosen concept and prevents further exploration into other concepts. This phenomenon has previously been attributed to sunk cost caused by building prototypes. In a controlled human subject experimental study in a robot development context we investigate the influence of building and testing prototypes by allowing one group of participants to test their prototypes frequently while the other group is not allowed to test and can only rely on the provided information about the hardware. We report about participants prematurely committing to concept choices and adhering to those after building and testing prototypes while non-testing participants make superior concept choices based on the provided information. While planning may be feasible in some projects with low uncertainty, problems that are more complex require prototyping for knowledge acquisition. We give suggestions on how to reduce the costs of prototyping and the associated effect it has on design fixation. These suggestions are very similar to the test driven development approach known from software development. They include the definition of critical functions and the respective tests before building the prototypes. When designing the prototypes the focus lies on making a conscious choice of how to prototype with the lowest fidelity necessary to comply with the previously defined test and attempting risky development stages early with the intention of maximizing the work not done. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Evaluating prototypes through prototype experiments is an essential part of most early stage, exploratory, product development processes. The rate at which prototypes are tested is often high and even incremental improvements in test outcomes, such as learnings and iteration speed, can be of great influence for the outcome of projects. Based on observations from a highly exploratory product development project and use existing classifications from literature to study how test environments can be prototyped in parallel with the main prototyping activities, and how fundamental trade-offs in test environment characteristics can be flexibly changed to fit each test in doing so. By getting a better understanding of how test environments can be used as tools, a higher momentum might be achieved in iterative prototyping. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
We sought to fabricate and perform initial safety testing of a hydrostatic device for intraluminal axial distension of the esophagus, as a minimally invasive means of inducing esophageal stretch/lengthening. The device consists of a modified infant endotracheal tube fitted with a unique anisotropically expandable balloon at its distal end. Structural integrity and functional parameters of the prototypes were measured in an expansion test rig. Subsequently, the impact of balloon inflation pressures on esophageal perfusion was examined in lambs (n = 6) with surgically created esophageal atresia. The device was placed in the proximal esophageal pouch and its intraluminal pressures were correlated with esophageal perfusion as assessed with a microvascular oximeter based on resonance Raman spectroscopy of hemoglobin. Statistical analyses included repeated measures with generalized estimating equations and inverse regression. The helicoidal architecture of the balloon led to consistent anisotropic expansion, with a stable relationship between balloon length, body width, and tip radius during liquid-based expansion within the test rig. There was a significant decrease in oxygen saturation in the esophageal wall at intraluminal pressures ≥ 30 mmHg (Pearson r = − 0.58, Wald test = 17.5, p = 0.027). Regression analysis identified that an intraluminal pressure of 32 mmHg correlated with oxygen saturations below 60% (p < 0.001). Controlled axial distension of an esophageal pouch can be achieved via an intraluminal anisotropically expandable hydrostatic device under a predictable, safe relationship between device pressure and esophageal perfusion. Intraluminal esophageal stretch may become a practical option for esophageal lengthening in the management of long gap esophageal atresia. N/A (animal and laboratory study). [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
International Journal of Instruction; Jul2019, Vol. 12 Issue 3, p271-288, 18p, 15 Charts
ACHIEVEMENT motivation, PERCEPTION, INDUSTRIAL engineers, NEEDS assessment, EXPERIENCE, and STUDENTS
There are two prominent constraints of students' needs analysis; first, the identification of needs in teaching English for Academic Purposes (EAP) merely focuses on two main dimensions, namely target needs and learning needs, and less to involve affective factors as the basis of all (including learning experience and achievement motivation). Second, there is a common notion that EAP learning is considered the same as general English so that the development of learning design often leads to English for General Academic Purposes (EGAP). This study aims to identify students' perception of learning experience and motivation for the prototype of learners' needs of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) in Industrial engineering. Data were collected from 40 students using three types of questionnaires, namely about learning experiences, learning motivation, and learners' needs. The data of learners' needs was also taken from 8 lecturers as well as program managers. By using quantitative and descriptive analysis, this study showed that first, the students had reasonable learning experience, by being able to participate in the EAP program. Second, the students had strong motivation in achieving their goals. Third, the relationship between learning experience and achievement motivation was not significant and was not quite strong, implying that learning experiences were predicted not to affect students' learning motivation. Fourth, the students' needs lead to English for Specific Academic Purposes (ESAP) which is thus contradictory with the previous notion. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Journal of Higher Education Theory & Practice; Aug2018, Vol. 18 Issue 3, p135-144, 10p
EDUCATIONAL cooperation, MIXED reality, RAPID prototyping, HIGHER education, and ENTREPRENEURSHIP
The Supercourse is a university-level class that brings together five different academic programs to build collaborative prototypes exploring mixed reality projects. The course also includes content around entrepreneurship in the mixed-reality context, and works within a larger student-driven entrepreneurship program at the university. Sun'ey results from three years of running the course are presented, with key lessons suggesting the most important focus should be on collaborative and communications skills-development above and beyond the domain-specific mixed reality curriculum. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]