Usó, Vanessa Ghiraldeli, Sandnes, Frode Eika, and Medola, Fausto Orsi
Usó, V.G., Sandnes, F.E. & Medola, F.O. (2020). Using virtual reality and rapid prototyping to co-create together with hospitalized children. In: M. Di Nicolantonio, E. Rossi & T. Alexander (Eds.). Advances in additive manufacturing, modeling systems and 3D prototyping: Proceedings of the AHFE 2019 International Conference on Additive Manufacturing, Modeling Systems and 3D Prototyping, 2020 (pp. 279-288) Cham: Springer
Bryden, Douglas (Designer), author. and Bryden, Douglas (Designer), author.
Industrial design -- Computer-aided design -- Case studies., Product design -- Computer-aided design -- Case studies., Computer-aided design., Rapid prototyping., Industrial design -- Data processing -- Case studies., Industrial design -- Data processing., and Case studies.
Computer-aided design (CAD) and rapid prototyping (RP) are now a fundamental part of the professional practice of product design and are therefore essential skills for product design undergraduate students. This book provides students with all the tools needed to get to grips with the range of both CAD software and RP processes used in the industry.
Sloyan, Karen, Melkonyan, Henrik, and Dahlem, Marcus S.
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology; Apr2020, Vol. 107 Issue 11/12, p4469-4480, 12p, 2 Black and White Photographs, 15 Diagrams, 2 Charts
FOCUSED ion beams, OPTICAL glass, MATERIALS science, RAPID prototyping, SEMICONDUCTOR materials, and OPTICAL fibers
Focused ion beam (FIB) milling is widely used in fields such as the semiconductor industry and materials science research. The direct writing and small feature size also make FIB milling attractive for rapid prototyping of novel photonic structures. In this manuscript, we describe in detail a FIB milling procedure which enables high-resolution fabrication of complex micro- and nanostructures with precise geometry control. Two different procedures (for 2D and 3D structures) are described and implemented on the tip of a glass optical fiber for fabricating diverse structures embedded on or below the tip surface. The procedures described here can be easily adjusted and implemented on any conductive or non-conductive substrate. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Geronazzo M, Vieira LS, Nilsson NC, Udesen J, and Serafin S
IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics [IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph] 2020 May; Vol. 26 (5), pp. 1912-1922. Date of Electronic Publication: 2020 Feb 13.
Directivity and gain in microphone array systems for hearing aids or hearable devices allow users to acoustically enhance the information of a source of interest. This source is usually positioned directly in front. This feature is called acoustic beamforming. The current study aimed to improve users' interactions with beamforming via a virtual prototyping approach in immersive virtual environments (VEs). Eighteen participants took part in experimental sessions composed of a calibration procedure and a selective auditory attention voice-pairing task. Eight concurrent speakers were placed in an anechoic environment in two virtual reality (VR) scenarios. The scenarios were a purely virtual scenario and a realistic 360° audio-visual recording. Participants were asked to find an individual optimal parameterization for three different virtual beamformers: (i) head-guided, (ii) eye gaze-guided, and (iii) a novel interaction technique called dual beamformer, where head-guided is combined with an additional hand-guided beamformer. None of the participants were able to complete the task without a virtual beamformer (i.e., in normal hearing condition) due to the high complexity introduced by the experimental design. However, participants were able to correctly pair all speakers using all three proposed interaction metaphors. Providing superhuman hearing abilities in the form of a dual acoustic beamformer guided by head and hand movements resulted in statistically significant improvements in terms of pairing time, suggesting the task-relevance of interacting with multiple points of interests.
De Santis M, Storchi L, Belpassi L, Quiney HM, and Tarantelli F
Journal of chemical theory and computation [J Chem Theory Comput] 2020 Apr 14; Vol. 16 (4), pp. 2410-2429. Date of Electronic Publication: 2020 Mar 09.
We present a real-time time-dependent four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham (RT-TDDKS) implementation based on the BERTHA code. This new implementation takes advantage of modern software engineering, including the prototyping techniques. The software design follows a three step approach: (i) the prototype implementation of a time-propagation algorithm in nonrelativistic real-time TDDFT within the Psi4NumPy framework, which provides a suitable environment for the creation of a clear, readable, and easy to test reference code in Python, (ii) the design of an original Python application programming interface for the relativistic four-component code BERTHA (PyBERTHA), which has an efficient computational kernel for relativistic integrals written in FORTRAN, and (iii) the porting of the time-propagation scheme enveloped within the Psi4NumPy framework to PyBERTHA. The propagation scheme consequently resides in a single readable Python computer code that is easy to maintain and in which the key quantities, such as the Dirac-Kohn-Sham and dipole matrices, can be accessed directly from the PyBERTHA module. For linear algebra operations (matrix-matrix multiplications and diagonalization) we use the highly optimized procedures implemented in the popular NumPy library. The overhead introduced by the Python interface to BERTHA is almost negligible (less than 1% evaluated on the SCF procedure), and the interoperability between different programming languages (FORTRAN, C, and Python) does not affect the numerical stability of the time-propagation scheme. Our new RT-TDDKS implementation has been employed to investigate the stability of the time-propagation procedure in combination with a density-fitting algorithm (both for the Coulomb and for the exchange-correlation matrix construction), which are employed in BERTHA to speed up the Dirac-Kohn-Sham matrix evaluation. On the basis of systematic calculations, employing several density-fitting basis sets of increasing accuracy, we showed that quantitative agreement can be achieved in combination with extended-fitting basis sets, with an error in the Coulomb energy below 1 μ-hartree. Convergence of the transition energies increasing of quality of the fitting basis sets has been also observed. Our data suggest that the error in the Coulomb energy may also represent a good estimate of the fitting basis set quality for real-time electron dynamics simulations. Further, we study the applicability of the RT-TDDKS method in combination with both weak- and extreme strong-field regime. Numerical results of excited-state transitions for the Group 12 atoms are reported and compared with a previous real-time Dirac-Kohn-Sham implementation (Repisky et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2015, 11, 980-991). Finally, calculations of high harmonic generation in the hydrogen molecule and Au dimer have been also carried out. We were able to generate high harmonics with relatively well-defined peaks up to the 21st and 13th order in the case of H 2 and Au 2 , respectively. Our findings show that the four-component structure of the Dirac-Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian provides a suitable theoretical framework, with no intrinsic unfavorable features, to study molecules in the strong-field regime.
Journal of esthetic and restorative dentistry : official publication of the American Academy of Esthetic Dentistry ... [et al.] [J Esthet Restor Dent] 2020 Apr; Vol. 32 (3), pp. 265-271. Date of Electronic Publication: 2020 Feb 16.
Haller, Norm, author. and National Research Council (U.S.). Air Force Studies Board, issuing body.
Prototypes, Engineering -- Congresses., Rapid prototyping -- Congresses., and Military research -- United States -- Planning -- Congresses.
"Assessment to Enhance Air Force and Department of Defense Prototyping for the New Defense Strategy is the summary of a workshop convened by the Air Force Studies Board of the National Academies' National Research Council in September 2013 to enhance Air Force and Department of Defense (DoD) prototyping for the new defense strategy. This workshop examined of a wide range of prototyping issues, including individual recommendations for a renewed prototype program, application of prototyping as a tool for technology/system development and sustainment (including annual funding), and positive and negative effects of a renewed program. Prototyping has historically been of great benefit to the Air Force and DoD in terms of risk reduction and concept demonstration prior to system development, advancing new technologies, workforce enhancement and skills continuity between major acquisitions, dissuasion of adversaries by demonstrating capabilities, maintaining technological surprise through classified technologies, and an overarching strategy of overall risk reduction during austere budget environments. Over the last two decades, however, many issues with prototyping have arisen. For example, the definitions and terminology associated with prototyping have been convoluted and budgets for prototyping have been used as offsets to remedy budget shortfalls. Additionally, prototyping has been done with no strategic intent or context, and both government and industry have misused prototyping as a key tool in the DoD and defense industrial base. Assessment to Enhance Air Force and Department of Defense Prototyping for the New Defense Strategy envisions a prototyping program that encourages innovation in new concepts and approaches and provides a means to assess and reduce risk before commitment to major new programs."--Publisher's description.
TRASTUZUMAB, DOCETAXEL, RAPID prototyping, IMMUNOGLOBULINS, NANOPARTICLES, and FLOW cytometry
Developing targeted nanoparticles is a rising strategy to improve drug delivery in oncology. Antibodies are the most commonly used targeting agents. However, determination of their optimal number at the surface remains a challenging issue, mainly due to the difficulties in measuring precisely surface coating levels when prototyping nanoparticles. We developed an original quantitative assay to measure the exact number of coated antibodies per nanoparticle. Using flow cytometry optimized for submicron particle analysis and beads covered with known amounts of human IgG-kappa mimicking various amounts of antibodies, this new method was tested as part of the prototyping of docetaxel liposomes coated with trastuzumab against Her2+ breast cancer. This quantification method allowed to discriminate various batches of immunoliposomes depending on their trastuzumab density on nanoparticle surface (i.e., 330 (Immunoliposome-1), 480 (Immunoliposome-2) and 690 (Immunoliposome-3), p = 0.004, One-way ANOVA). Here we showed that optimal number of grafted antibodies on nanoparticles should be finely tuned and highest density of targeting agent is not necessarily associated with highest efficacy. Overall, this new method should help to better prototype third generation nanoparticles. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
VIRTUAL prototypes, VIRTUAL design, HUMAN-machine systems, MACHINERY, TASK performance, RAPID prototyping, and MOBILE robots
Limited visibility from a mobile machine cab can decrease task performance and lead to accidents. Therefore, it is important to consider visibility issues already in the design phase. This paper describes the use of virtual prototyping in the evaluation of see-through features of mobile work machines. The goal is to evaluate whether two different machine boom transparency levels have an effect on task performance. In addition, two alternative placements of overlaid information in the operators' field of view are assessed. A within-subject design was used in this study. Based on the results, there was no significant difference in performance between the transparency levels. However, the test participants preferred a transparency level of 70–80% (where 0% is completely opaque). Similar results were found with the placement of the overlaid information, which had no significant effect on task performance. Both placements, on the windscreen and on the tunnel wall, were equally favoured by the participants. The findings of this study contribute to the design of see-through features for mobile work machines. In addition, the study demonstrates the use of virtual prototyping in the design of novel features in human–machine systems. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]