Despite the last 60 years have seen major advances in many scientific and technological inputs of drug Research and Development, the number of new molecules hitting the market per billion US dollars of R&D spending has been declined steadily during the same period. The current scenario highlights the need for new research tools to enable reduce costly animal and clinical trials while providing a better prediction about drug efficacy and security in humans A recent emerging approach to improve the current models is emerging from the field of microfluidics, which studies systems that process or manipulate tiny amounts of fluids using channels with dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers. Combining microfluidics with cell culture, scientists gave rise to a new field named “Organ-on-chip” (OOC). Microfluidic OOCs are advanced platforms designed to mimic physiological structures and continuous flow conditions, thus allowing the culture of cells in a friendlier microenvironment. This thesis, titled “Cell culture interfaces for different organ-on-chip applications: from photolithography to rapid-prototyping techniques with sensor embedding”, aims to design, simulate and test new OOC devices to reproduce cell culture interface under flow conditions. The work has a focus on the exploration of novel fabrication techniques which enable rapid prototyping of OOC devices, reducing costs, time and human labor associated to the fabrication process. The final objective is to demonstrate the viability of the devices as research tools for biological problems, applying them to the tubular kidney and the blood brain barrier (BBB). To achieve the objective, at least three device version have been developed: 1) OOCv1, fabricated by multilayer PDMS soft lithography; 2) OOCv2, fabricated in thermoplastic by layered object manufacturing using both a vinyl cutter and a laser cutter, integrating standard fluidic connectors alone (OOCv2.1) or together with embedded electrodes (OOCv2.2); 3) OOCv3 using a mixed technique of laser cut and 3D printing by stereolithography. All devices are fabricated using biocompatible materials with high optical quality and an embedded commercial membrane. The biological experiments with renal tubular epithelial cells, realized on OOCv1 and OOCv2.1 devices, demonstrated the viability of the device for culturing cells under flow conditions. The study realized on fatty acid oxidation and accumulation in cells exposed to physiological and diabetogenic oscillating levels of glucose suggest a possible positive role of shear stress in activation of fatty acid metabolism. The studies were performed using a compact experimental unit with embedded flow control which reduce significatively the complexity and cost of the fluidic experimental setup. The biological experiments on the BBB confirmed viability of OOCv2.1 and OOCv2.2 for compartmentalized co-culturing of endothelial cells and pericytes. The formation and recovery of the barrier after disruptive treatment has been assessed using different techniques, including immunostaining, fluorescence and live phase contrast imaging, and electrical impedance spectroscopy. The repeatability of measurements using electrodes was verified. A model to classify measurements from different timepoints has been developed, resulting in accuracy of 100% in learning and 90% in testing case. Results are confirmed by imaging data, which also suggest a critical role of pericytes in the development, maintenance, and regulation of BBB, in accordance with the literature.
Fransiska Wahyuning Kurniawati, Christ Rudianto, Augie David Manuputty, and Agustinus Fritz Wijaya
Journal of Information Systems and Informatics, Vol 2, Iss 1, Pp 89-104 (2020)
prototyping, user interface, information system, internship, Mathematics, QA1-939, Electronic computers. Computer science, and QA75.5-76.95
Human Resources (HR) is one of the important things that determines the success of the services of a company, one of the things done to prepare a good HR is to launch a program of Job Training (PKL) or also known as an internship. PT.Gramedia Asri Media became one of the companies implementing the internship program, but the existing internship program was still carried out manually by distributing information to tertiary institutions via email. This journal aims to create an apprenticeship information system design by developing a system using the prototyping method so that the apprenticeship process can be carried out in a single system from the dissemination of information to the resolution of administrative problems related to finance and the need for an apprenticeship approval document. The system development method used therein is the prototyping method that starts from analyzing user needs to creating a User Interface (UI) that is easily understood by the user. The apprenticeship information system is expected to make the apprenticeship process more effective both in registering and processing the internship data contained therein.
Koay Kheng Lee, Syrdal Dag Sverre, Dautenhahn Kerstin, and Walters Michael L.
Paladyn: Journal of Behavioral Robotics, Vol 11, Iss 1, Pp 66-85 (2020)
prototyping, human-robot interactions, user studies, social robotics, robot companions, and Technology
This paper presents a proof of concept prototype study for domestic home robot companions, using a narrative-based methodology based on the principles of immersive engagement and fictional enquiry, creating scenarios which are inter-connected through a coherent narrative arc, to encourage participant immersion within a realistic setting. The aim was to ground human interactions with this technology in a coherent, meaningful experience. Nine participants interacted with a robotic agent in a smart home environment twice a week over a month, with each interaction framed within a greater narrative arc. Participant responses, both to the scenarios and the robotic agents used within them are discussed, suggesting that the prototyping methodology was successful in conveying a meaningful interaction experience.
Suresh M. Chaware, Vaibhav Bagaria, and Abhay Kuthe
Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery, Vol 42, Iss 01, Pp 085-093 (2020)
ankylosis, cad, rapid prototyping, temporomandibular joint, total joint replacement, Surgery, and RD1-811
Anthropometric variations in humans make it difficult to replace a temporomandibular joint (TMJ), successfully using a standard “one-size-fits-all” prosthesis. The case report presents a unique concept of total TMJ replacement with customized and modified TMJ prosthesis, which is cost-effective and provides the best fit for the patient. The process involved in designing and modifications over the existing prosthesis are also described. A 12-year- old female who presented for treatment of left unilateral TMJ ankylosis underwent the surgery for total TMJ replacement. A three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) scan suggested features of bony ankylosis of left TMJ. CT images were converted to a sterolithographic model using CAD software and a rapid prototyping machine. A process of rapid manufacturing was then used to manufacture the customized prosthesis. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, with an improvement in mouth opening of 3.5 cm and painless jaw movements. Three years postsurgery, the patient is pain-free, has a mouth opening of about 4.0 cm and enjoys a normal diet. The postoperative radiographs concur with the excellent clinical results. The use of CAD/CAM technique to design the custom-made prosthesis, using orthopaedically proven structural materials, significantly improves the predictability and success rates of TMJ replacement surgery.
Przemysław KRAKOWSKI, Józef JONAK, Robert KARPIŃSKI, and Łukasz JAWORSKI
Applied Computer Science, Vol 15, Iss 3, Pp 65-72 (2019)
Rapid Prototyping, surgery planning, fractures, Information technology, T58.5-58.64, Electronic computers. Computer science, and QA75.5-76.95
Orthopaedic trauma surgery is a complex surgical speciality in which anatomy, physiology and physics are mixed. Proper diagnosing and based on that planning and performing surgery is of crucial matter. This article presents usefulness of 3D reconstruction in diagnostics and surgical planning. It focuses on utility of computed tomography reconstruction in trauma surgery. Moreover, two cases in which this technique was used is described. Complex 3D reconstruction proved its usefulness and in future it may become a modality of choice for planning complex trauma procedures in which standard implants and approaches are insufficient.
A. Rodallec, C. Franco, S. Robert, G. Sicard, S. Giacometti, B. Lacarelle, F. Bouquet, A. Savina, R. Lacroix, F. Dignat-George, J. Ciccolini, P. Poncelet, and R. Fanciullino
Scientific Reports, Vol 10, Iss 1, Pp 1-11 (2020)
Medicine and Science
Abstract Developing targeted nanoparticles is a rising strategy to improve drug delivery in oncology. Antibodies are the most commonly used targeting agents. However, determination of their optimal number at the surface remains a challenging issue, mainly due to the difficulties in measuring precisely surface coating levels when prototyping nanoparticles. We developed an original quantitative assay to measure the exact number of coated antibodies per nanoparticle. Using flow cytometry optimized for submicron particle analysis and beads covered with known amounts of human IgG-kappa mimicking various amounts of antibodies, this new method was tested as part of the prototyping of docetaxel liposomes coated with trastuzumab against Her2+ breast cancer. This quantification method allowed to discriminate various batches of immunoliposomes depending on their trastuzumab density on nanoparticle surface (i.e., 330 (Immunoliposome-1), 480 (Immunoliposome-2) and 690 (Immunoliposome-3), p = 0.004, One-way ANOVA). Here we showed that optimal number of grafted antibodies on nanoparticles should be finely tuned and highest density of targeting agent is not necessarily associated with highest efficacy. Overall, this new method should help to better prototype third generation nanoparticles.
literary mapping, geospatial prototyping, scholarly communication, paradise lost, History of scholarship and learning. The humanities, AZ20-999, Electronic computers. Computer science, and QA75.5-76.95
This draft of the article was accidentally published on 23/01/2020. It has been retracted; the correct version of the article will soon be published [link to follow]. For a temporary author manuscript version, please see https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3631743
The present work addresses two different applications enabled by a specific and useful property of calcium phosphate cements (CPCs): injectability. On the one hand minimally invasive procedures involving the use of CPCs are based on the injectability of such biomaterials, and on the other hand extrusion-based additive manufacturing processes such as robocasting rely on this property to correctly manufacture personalized 3D-printed scaffolds for the treatment of large bone defects. The present thesis is divided in three different sections. The first one consists in a study of the differences of injectability of aqueous pastes of the two allotropic forms of tricalcium phosphate, namely a- and ß-TCP. The reactivity of the powder was shown to play a significant role in the injectability of TCP pastes. Significant differences were observed between the injection behaviour of non-hardening ß-TCP pastes and that of selfhardening a-TCP pastes. The differences were more marked at low liquid-to-powder ratios, using fine powders and injecting through thin needles. Although, as a general trend, faster-setting pastes were less injectable, some exceptions to this rule were found. For example, whereas in the absence of setting accelerants fine TCP powders were more injectable than the coarse ones, in spite of their shorter setting times, this trend was inverted when setting accelerants were added, and coarse powders were more injectable than the fine ones. In the second section thermoresponsive pastes are developed through the combination of CPCs with an inversethermoresponsive hydrogel. Although calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are used for bone regeneration in a wide range of clinical applications, various physicochemical phenomena are known to hinder their potential use in minimally invasive surgery or in highly vascularized surgical sites, mainly because of their lack of injectability or their low washout resistance. The proposed strategy allowed to finely tune the cohesive and rheological properties of CPCs to achieve clinical acceptable injectability. It avoided phase separation during implantation and improved cohesion, avoiding washout of the paste. Using the knowledge acquired about the injectability behaviour of TCP pastes, the additive manufacturing of 3D printed scaffolds is studied in the last section. More precisely, this study dealt with the robocasting of alpha-tricalcium phosphate/gelatine reactive slurries as a bioinspired self-setting ink for the production of biomimetic hydroxyapatite/gelatine scaffolds. A controlled and totally interconnected pore network of approximately 300 µm was obtained after ink printing and setting, with the struts consisting of a micro/nanoporous matrix of needle-shaped calcium deficient hydroxyapatite crystals, with a high specific surface area. Gelatine was effectively retained by chemical crosslinking. The setting reaction of the ink resulted in a significant increase of both the elastic modulus and the compressive strength of the scaffolds, which were within the range of the human trabecular bone. In addition to delaying the onset of the setting reaction, thus providing enough time for printing, gelatine provided the viscoelastic properties to the strands to support their own weight, and additionally enhanced mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and proliferation on the surface of the scaffold. Altogether this new processing approach opens good perspectives for the design of hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering with enhanced reactivity and resorption rate.
Lorenzo Invidia, Silvio Lucio Oliva, Andrea Palmieri, Luigi Patrono, and Piercosimo Rametta
Journal of Communications Software and Systems, Vol 15, Iss 2, Pp 138-149 (2019)
BLE, Embedded System, Internet of Things, MQTT, Rapid Prototyping, STM32 ODE, Computer software, and QA76.75-76.765
The Internet of Things (IoT) is characterized by many technologies, standards, tools and devices for a wide range of application fields and often, for the end-users (makers and developers), is hard to orientate in an equally wide range of offers from various manufacturers. In recent years, the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) communication protocol is achieving a large portion of the market, thanks to its low-power and low-cost orientation and its pervasiveness in mobile devices, like smartphones. For these reasons, BLE is increasingly used in IoT-oriented Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN), where a small set of devices arranged in star topology network and connected to a smartphone and a Wi-Fi gateway, can cover a large number of monitoring and controlling use case scenarios. This work presents the ST’s STM32 Open Development Environment (ODE), a complete suite of hardware and software tools representing a reference point for end-users willing to create BLE-based star topology networks for a wide range of applications. Through a simple use case in a smart home context, it is shown how all provided tools can be used to fast prototype applications addressing all user requirements.
Juan Manuel Munoz-Guijosa, Rodrigo Zapata Martínez, Adrián Martínez Cendrero, and Andrés Díaz Lantada
Materials, Vol 13, Iss 4, p 939 (2020)
rapid tooling, rapid prototyping, 3d printing, 3d printed molds, fiber-reinforced polymers (frps), biomedical devices, articular splints, computer-aided design (cad), Technology, Electrical engineering. Electronics. Nuclear engineering, TK1-9971, Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General), TA1-2040, Microscopy, QH201-278.5, Descriptive and experimental mechanics, and QC120-168.85
Advances in additive manufacturing technologies and composite materials are starting to be combined into synergic procedures that may impact the biomedical field by helping to achieve personalized and high-performance solutions for low-resource settings. In this article, we illustrate the benefits of 3D-printed rapid molds, upon which composite fibers can be laminated in a direct and resource-efficient way, for the personalized development of articular splints. The rapid mold concept presented in this work allows for a flexible lamination and curing process, even compatible with autoclaves. We demonstrate the procedure by completely developing an autoclave-cured carbon fiber−epoxy composite ankle immobilizing, supporting, or protecting splint. These medical devices may support patients in their recovery of articular injuries and for promoting a more personalized medical care employing high-performance materials, whose mechanical response is analyzed and compared to that of commercial devices. In fact, this personalization is fundamental for enhanced ergonomics, comfort during rehabilitation, and overall aesthetics. The proposed design and manufacturing strategies may support the low-cost and user-centered development of a wide set of biomedical devices and help to delocalize the supply chain for involving local populations in the development of medical technology.
Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol 7, Iss 2.3, Pp 1-9 (2019)
Biometric Fingerprint Authentication, Daily Time Record System, Prototyping Methodology, Science, and Social Sciences
The Daily Time Record (DTR) is a requirement as a basis primarily for the salary of employees. This DTR is a measure of the behavior of one’s employee towards work. It is used to determine the undertaking of employees during their working hours. It gathers the logs in and logs out time information. The study generally aimed to design, develop, implement and evaluate the Daily Time Record (DTR) System using Biometric Fingerprint Authentication. Specifically, the study aimed to design with usable functional requirements considering DTR, Employee, Department and Import modules. Likewise, determine the system’s acceptability level using ISO 9126 criteria on its usability and efficiency. The study observed prototyping methodology in systems analysis, design, development, and implementation. The quantitative research was employed particularly purposive sampling during the system’s evaluation of its functional requirements, and the system’s behavioral aspect particularly usability and efficiency characteristics. The results revealed that the system, generally in accordance to the pre-defined functionalities, particularly, compliance with the Civil Service DTR report, with highly acceptable system’s behavioral characteristics on its usability and efficiency. It means the system functions adherence to institutional standards, highly usable particularly in the keeping, monitoring of the employees’ attendance and the whole system process provides efficiency. The realization of the study is an indicator of evolving to the culture of innovation for ethical knowledge-based society. It is recommended to consider relevant features like the automatic generation of payroll, summary lists of the employees’ requisition of the leave credits, and the computation of absences to sustain evolving the culture of innovation towards ethical knowledge-based society.