3D bioprinting, often referred to as additive manufacturing, is a combination of advanced technology and medical science. It is being used in the twenty-first century in many spheres such as engineering, manufacturing, art, and education in addition to its primary purpose: medicine.
Mechanical engineering is the field dealing with the development and detailed design of systems to perform desired tasks. Developed from the discipline of designing the engines, power generators, tools, and mechanisms needed for mass manufacturing, it has grown into the broadest field of engineering, encompassing or touching most of the disciplines of science and engineering. Mechanical engineers take the laws of nature and apply them using rigorous mathematical principles to design mechanisms. The process of design implies innovation, implementation, and optimization to develop the most suitable solution to the specified problem, given its constraints and requirements. The field also includes studies of the various factors affecting the design and use of the mechanisms being considered.
Concurrent engineering (CE) is an important method of modern engineering popular in manufacturing and many other industries. This form of engineering departs from traditional linear methods. In its most basic sense, concurrent engineering involves performing engineering steps such as designing, developing, refining, manufacturing, and improving products more or less at the same time. Many businesses have adopted concurrent engineering as a long-term strategy to reduce development and production time, save money and resources, and, in many cases, improve productivity and product quality. Concurrent engineering is also sometimes called simultaneous engineering; both terms relate to the way the steps of the process occur simultaneously rather than consecutively.
The Sculpture word “sculpture” comes from Latin sculpere, meaning “to carve.” Sculptures can be made from variety of materials, including wood, metal, glass, clay, textiles, or plastic that is carved, cast, welded, cut, or otherwise formed into shapes. Topiary and bonsai are living sculptures. Modern sculptors even experiment with light and sound. Additionally, sculptures may be free-standing objects or appear as reliefs on surfaces like walls.