This article presents a novel methodology to design swash plate type axial piston machines based on computationally based approach. The methodology focuses on the design of the main lubricating interfaces present in a swash plate type unit: the cylinder block/valve plate, the piston/cylinder, and the slipper/swash plate interface. These interfaces determine the behavior of the machine in term of energy efficiency and durability. The proposed method couples for the first time the numerical models developed at the authors’ research center for each separated tribological interface in a single optimization framework. The paper details the optimization procedure, the geometry, and material considered for each part. A physical prototype was also built and tested from the optimal results found from the numerical model. Tests were performed at the authors’ lab, confirming the validity of the proposed method.
Interactive Augmented Prototyping (IAP) is a novel approach that extends the benefits of virtual prototyping to physical model making by employing Augmented Reality (AR) technologies. Although several IAP systems exist, the development of these prototypes is complicated. At present, an in-depth discussion regarding design support scenarios and relevant design domains is lacking. This article presents an overview of the enablers of IAP, including physical model making and input and display techniques. Each have their limitations and challenges, which restrict the interaction possibilities and set-up time/effort. From this palette of enabling technologies, a morphological chart was constructed. Furthermore, existing IAP applications from the literature were compared in terms of design support and technologies. An important finding is that existing IAP systems limit the level of interaction, thus restricting the benefits. More elaborate applications should be developed. Finally, a more elaborate method to assess the impact of IAP is required.
Heng Li, Hongling Guo, Miroslaw Skibniewski, and Martin Skitmore
Construction Management and Economics, 2008, 26, 9, 991.
IKEA model, site operations, and virtual prototyping
Learning from manufacturing industries is a useful approach to improving the productivity of the construction industry and to solve problems arising from construction processes. Through the use of virtual prototyping (VP) technology, the lean production process engaged in the IKEA business model (IKEA model) is studied and implemented in a real-life construction project. Specifically, based on the analysis of the IKEA model, the IKEA model can be applied to optimize construction processes and simplify management activities. A case study is analysed to demonstrate the improvement of construction process management through using the VP-IKEA approach.
Collision detection, Virtual prototyping, and Bounding volume hierarchies
This paper presents an efficient collision detection algorithm designed to support assembly and maintenance simulation of complex assemblies. This approach exploits the surface knowledge, available from CAD models, to determine intersecting surfaces. It proposes a novel combination of Overlapping Axis-Aligned Bounding Box (OAABB) and R-tree structures to gain considerable performance improvements. This paper also shows an efficient traversal algorithm based on the R-tree structure of Axis-Aligned Bounding Boxes to determine intersecting objects and intersecting surfaces between three-dimensional components, for supporting the recognition of constraints in assembly and disassembly operations in virtual prototyping environments. The implementation of the proposed collision detection algorithm performs well against moderately complex industrial case studies. Current experimental results show that this implementation is effective in determining intersecting surfaces at interactive rates with moderately complex real case studies.
Cicconi, Paolo, Landi, Daniele, and Germani, Michele
Applied Energy, 2017, 192, C, 159.
Electric vehicle, Li-ion batteries, Virtual prototyping, Battery cooling, and Battery configuration
The scope of the present research is the reduction of cost and time related to the design, prototyping and testing of a Li-ion battery pack, which is used in commercial full electric vehicles using tools for rapid product configuration and simulation. This objective is particularly important for small companies that produce many different batteries in small lots. To develop the product design support system, a preliminary study was necessary. A 3D model was analyzed to simulate real thermal behavior, reproducing a real electric load using a standard ECE-15 cycle. Experimental tests have been conducted on the vehicle and battery to validate the model. An analytical thermal model was developed to evaluate the heat generated by electrochemical reactions inside a Li-ion cell. The outcome of this analytical model was used as the boundary condition in the CFD simulation of the battery model to evaluate the cooling behavior. The rules and results deduced from these studies have allowed the implementation of an easy-to-use knowledge-based configuration tool that supports the designer in the definition of the layout of the battery pack to save time and evaluate costs. As a test case, the battery for an urban freight vehicle was designed using the proposed approach. The achieved results show good performance and robustness of the simplified approach in terms of temperature distribution evaluation and design process efficiency.