Leslie, Laura Jane, Connolly, Ashley, Swadener, John G., Junaid, Sarah, Theivendran, Kanthan, and Deshmukh, Subodh C.
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers -- Part H -- Journal of Engineering in Medicine (Sage Publications, Ltd.); Jun2018, Vol. 232 Issue 6, p565-572, 8p
ORTHOPEDIC surgery, MATERIALS testing, BONE screws (Orthopedics), MECHANICS (Physics), METALS, POLYMERS, TIME, WEIGHTS & measures, PRODUCT design, THREE-dimensional printing, STANDARDS, and EQUIPMENT & supplies
The majority of orthopaedic screws are designed, tested and manufactured by existing orthopaedics companies and are predominantly developed with healthy bone in mind. The timescales and costs involved in the development of a new screw design, for example, for osteoporotic bone, are high. In this study, standard wood screws were used to analyse the concept of using three-dimensional printing, or rapid prototyping, as a viable stage of development in the design of a new bone screw. Six wood screws were reverse engineered and printed in polymeric material using stereolithography. Three of the designs were also printed in Ti6Al4V using direct metal laser sintering; however, these were not of sufficient quality to test further. Both the original metal screws (metal) and polymeric rapid prototyping screws were then tested using standard pull-out tests from low-density polyurethane blocks (Sawbones). Results showed the highest pull-out strengths for screws with the longest thread length and the smallest inner diameter. Of the six screw designs tested, five showed no more than a 17% variance between the metal and rapid prototyping results. A similar pattern of results was shown between the screw designs for both the metal and rapid prototyping screws in five of the six cases. While not producing fully comparable pull-out results to orthopaedic screws, the results from this study do provide evidence of the potential usefulness and cost-effectiveness of rapid prototyping in the early stages of design and testing of orthopaedic screws. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Osteoporosis is one of the most dangerous skeletal diseases in relation to the highest fracture risk in vertebral bones. A considerable amount of work has been done to investigate the biomechanical characteristics of osteoporotic vertebral trabecular bone. Previous researchers studied the elastic characteristics using a micro-finite element (micro-FE) model, used to analyze realistic trabecular architectures in full detail, based on micro-computed tomography (μCT). Since osteoporotic compression fracture is closely associated with the mechanical characteristics of the vertebral trabecular bone and there were few micro-FE models to account for all of the elastic and plastic characteristics in vertebral trabecular bone, this study analyzed the effect of voxel resolution on the plastic characteristics as well as the elastic characteristics of three-dimensional (3D) osteoporotic lumbar trabecular bone models. Also, we evaluated the effect of specimen geometry on this problem. It has been reported that a cubic specimen with side length 6.5mm was suggested as standard specimens for the experimental test of trabecular bone. Current study examined whether or not the effect of the specimen geometry on the experimental test may be also applied to the simulated compression test of trabecular bone specimens. The experimental test employing the rapid prototyping (RP) technique and INSTRON test machine is performed to indirectly validate the results of the simulated compression test by micro-FE analysis. The review finished with the verification about the effects of the simulated compression test. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]