Indian Journal of Orthopaedics. July-August, 2013, Vol. 47 Issue 4, 388
Tissue engineering, Stem cells, Collagen, Phosphate minerals, Phosphate rock, and Rapid prototyping
Background: In bone tissue engineering, extracellular matrix exerts critical influence on cellular interaction with porous biomaterial and the apatite playing an important role in the bonding process of biomaterial to [...]
Kang, Yun Gyeong, Wei, Jie, Shin, Ji Won, Wu, Yan Ru, Su, Jiacan, Park, Young Shik, and Shin, Jung-Woog
International Journal of Nanomedicine. Annual, 2018, Vol. 13, p1107, 11 p.
Tissue engineering, Silicates, Rapid prototyping, Stem cells, and Porosity
Introduction Bone tissue engineering is aimed at treating injured bone tissues by inducing regeneration. Three major factors should be considered in tissue engineering: cell sources, scaffolds, and environmental factors, including [...] Background: Successful bone tissue engineering using scaffolds is primarily dependent on the properties of the scaffold, including biocompatibility, highly interconnected porosity, and mechanical integrity. Methods: In this study, we propose new composite scaffolds consisting of mesoporous magnesium silicate (m_MS), polycaprolactone (PCL), and wheat protein (WP) manufactured by a rapid prototyping technique to provide a micro/macro porous structure. Experimental groups were set based on the component ratio: (1) WP0% (m_MS:PCL:WP =30:70:0 weight per weight; w/w); (2) WP15% (m_MS:PCL:WP =30:55:15 w/w); (3) WP30% (m_MS:PCL:WP =30:40:30 w/w). Results: Evaluation of the properties of fabricated scaffolds indicated that increasing the amount of WP improved the surface hydrophilicity and biodegradability of m_MS/PCL/WP composites, while reducing the mechanical strength. Moreover, experiments were performed to confirm the biocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) according to the component ratio of the scaffold. The results confirmed that the content of WP affects proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Based on the last day of the experiment, ie, the 14th day, the proliferation based on the amount of DNA was the best in the WP30% group, but all of the markers measured by PCR were the most expressed in the WP15% group. Conclusion: These results suggest that the m_MS/PCL/WP composite is a promising candidate for use as a scaffold in cell-based bone regeneration. Keywords: mesoporous magnesium silicate, wheat protein, scaffold, bone tissue engineering, osteogenic differentiation
Byline: Andreas Lendlein, Marc Behl, Artem B. Kutikov, Kevin A. Reyer, Jie Song Keywords: biodegradable; hydroxyapatite; rapid prototyping; shape-memory polymers; tissue engineering Biodegradable polymer/hydroxyapatite (HA) composites are desired for skeletal tissue enginA-eering. When engineered with thermally responsive shape-memory properties, they may be delivered in a minimally invasive temporary shape and subsequently triggered to conform to a tissue defect. Here, the shape-memory properties of thermoplastic amphiphilic poly(d,l-lactic acid-co-ethylene glycol-co-d,l-lactic acid) (PELA) (M.sub.w = 120 kDa) and HA-PELA composites are reported. These materials can be cold-deformed and stably fixed into temporary shapes at room temperature and undergo rapid shape recovery (99% fixing ratio) of large deformations is achieved at -20 [degrees]C. While the shape recovery from tensile deformations slows with higher HA contents, all the composites (up to 20 wt% HA) achieve high shape recovery (>90%) upon equilibration for 10 min at 50 [degrees]C. The permanent shapes of HA-PELA can be reprogrammed at 50 [degrees]C, and macroporous shape-memory scaffolds can be fabricated by rapid prototyping. Supporting information: Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article As a service to our authors and readers, this journal provides supporting information supplied by the authors. Such materials are peer reviewed and may be re-organized for online delivery, but are not copy-edited or typeset. Technical support issues arising from supporting information (other than missing files) should be addressed to the authors. CAPTION(S): Supplementary
Abbah, Sunny A., Delgado, Luis M., Azeem, Ayesha, Fuller, Kieran, Shologu, Naledi, Keeney, Michael, Biggs, Manus J., Pandit, Abhay, and Zeugolis, Dimitrios I.
Advanced Healthcare Materials. Nov 18, 2015, Vol. 4 Issue 16, p2488, 12 p.
Tissue engineering and Rapid prototyping
Byline: Sunny A. Abbah, Luis M. Delgado, Ayesha Azeem, Kieran Fuller, Naledi Shologu, Michael Keeney, Manus J. Biggs, Abhay Pandit, Dimitrios I. Zeugolis Keywords: scaffold fabrication technologies; self-assembly; freeze-drying; additive manufacturing; electrospinning; imprinting; tissue engineering Cells within a tissue are able to perceive, interpret and respond to the biophysical, biomechanical, and biochemical properties of the 3D extracellular matrix environment in which they reside. Such stimuli regulate cell adhesion, metabolic state, proliferation, migration, fate and lineage commitment, and ultimately, tissue morphogenesis and function. Current scaffold fabrication strategies in musculoskeletal tissue engineering seek to mimic the sophistication and comprehensiveness of nature to develop hierarchically assembled 3D implantable devices of different geometric dimensions (nano- to macrometric scales) that will offer control over cellular functions and ultimately achieve functional regeneration. Herein, advances and shortfalls of bottom-up (self-assembly, freeze-drying, rapid prototype, electrospinning) and top-down (imprinting) scaffold fabrication approaches, specific to musculoskeletal tissue engineering, are discussed and critically assessed.
Schuller-Ravoo, Sigrid, Zant, Erwin, Feijen, Jan, and Grijpma, Dirk W.
Advanced Healthcare Materials. Dec 2014, Vol. 3 Issue 12, p2004, 8 p.
Tissue engineering, Carbonates, and Rapid prototyping
Byline: Sigrid Schuller-Ravoo, Erwin Zant, Jan Feijen, Dirk W. Grijpma Keywords: photocross-linking; poly(trimethylene carbonate); rapid prototyping; stereolithography; microvascular networks; tissue-engineering scaffolds Designed flexible and elastic network structures are prepared by stereolithoA-graphy using a photo-crosslinkable resin based on a poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) macromer with a molecular weight of 3150 g/mol. Physical properties and the compatibility with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) are evaluated. The hydrophobic networks are found to be flexible and elastic, with an E modulus of 7.9 [+ or -] 0.1 MPa, a tensile strength of 3.5 [+ or -] 0.1 MPa and an elongation at break of 76.7 [+ or -] 0.7%. HUVECs attach and proliferate well on the surfaces of the built structures. A three-dimensional microvascular network is designed to serve as a perfusable scaffold for tissue engineering. In the design, 5 generations of open channels each branch into 4 smaller channels yielding a microvascular region with a high density of capillaries. The overall cross-A-sectional area through which medium or blood can be perfused remains constant. These structures would ensure efficient nourishment of cells in a large volume of tissue. Built by stereolithography using the PTMC resin, the smallest channels of these structures have square cross-sectional areas, with inner widths of approximately 224 I1/4m and wall thicknesses of approximately 152 I1/4m. The channels are open, allowing water to perfuse the scaffold at 0.279 [+ or -] 0.006 mL/s at 80 mmHg and 0.335 [+ or -] 0.009 mL/s at 120 mmHg. Supporting information: Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article As a service to our authors and readers, this journal provides supporting information supplied by the authors. Such materials are peer reviewed and may be re-organized for online delivery, but are not copy-edited or typeset. Technical support issues arising from supporting information (other than missing files) should be addressed to the authors. CAPTION(S): Supplementary
Jensen, Jonas, Rolfing, Jan Hendrik Duedal, Svend Le, Dang Quang, Kristiansen, Asger Albaek, Nygaard, Jens Vinge, Hokland, Lea Bjerre, Bendtsen, Michael, Kassem, Moustapha, Lysdahl, Helle, and Bunger, Cody Eric
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research: Part A. Sept, 2014, Vol. 102 Issue 9, p2993, 11 p.
Tissue engineering, Biodegradation, Dioxane, Rapid prototyping, and Bone morphogenetic proteins
Byline: Jonas Jensen, Jan Hendrik Duedal Rolfing, Dang Quang Svend Le, Asger Albaek Kristiansen, Jens Vinge Nygaard, Lea Bjerre Hokland, Michael Bendtsen, Moustapha Kassem, Helle Lysdahl, Cody Eric Bunger Keywords: poly-I[micro]-caprolactone; biodegradation; scaffold; bone tissue engineering; foreign body giant cell Abstract A porcine calvaria defect study was carried out to investigate the bone repair potential of three-dimensional (3D)-printed poly-I[micro]-caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds embedded with nanoporous PCL. A microscopic grid network was created by rapid prototyping making a 3D-fused deposition model (FDM-PCL). Afterward, the FDM-PCL scaffolds were infused with a mixture of PCL, water, and 1,4-dioxane and underwent a thermal-induced phase separation (TIPS) followed by lyophilization. The TIPS process lead to a nanoporous structure shielded by the printed microstructure (NSP-PCL). Sixteen Landrace pigs were divided into two groups with 8 and 12 weeks follow-up, respectively. A total of six nonpenetrating holes were drilled in the calvaria of each animal. The size of the cylindrical defects was h 10 mm and O 10 mm. The defects were distributed randomly using following groups: (a) NSP-PCL scaffold, (b) FDM-PCL scaffold, (c) autograft, (d) empty defect, (a1) NSP-PCL scaffold + autologous mononuclear cells, and (a2) NSP-PCL scaffold + bone morphogenetic protein 2. Bone volume to total volume was analyzed using microcomputed tomography (A[micro]CT) and histomorphometry. The A[micro]CT and histological data showed significantly less bone formation in the NSP-PCL scaffolds in all three variations after both 8 and 12 weeks compared to all other groups. The positive autograft control had significantly higher new bone formation compared to all other groups except the FDM-PCL when analyzed using histomorphometry. The NSP-PCL scaffolds were heavily infiltrated with foreign body giant cells suggesting an inflammatory response and perhaps active resorption of the scaffold material. The unmodified FDM-PCL scaffold showed good osteoconductivity and osseointegration after both 8 and 12 weeks. [c] 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 2993-3003, 2014. Article Note: The author, or one or more of the authors (JVN, LBH, and CEB), has received or will receive remuneration or other prequisites for personal or professional use from a commercial or industrial agent in direct or indirect relationship to their authorship. A spin-off company (Levoss Aps, Copenhagen, Denmark) has later been established based on the patent filed on the NSP-PCL scaffold.
Additive manufacturing, 3D printing, Rapid prototyping, Biomaterials, Tissue engineering, Scaffolds, Constructs, Bone, and Cartilage
Bone and cartilage constructs are often plagued with mechanical failure, poor nutrient transport, poor tissue ingrowth, and necrosis of embedded cells. However, advances in computer aided design (CAD) and computational modeling enable the design of scaffolds with complex internal michroarchitectures and the a priori prediction of their transport and mechanical properties, such that the design of constructs satisfying the needs of the tissue environment can be optimized. The goal of this research is to investigate the capability of additive manufacturing technologies to create designed microarchitectured tissue engineering scaffolds for bone and cartilage regeneration. This goal will be achieved by pursuing the following two objectives: (1) the manufacture of bioresorbable thermoplastic scaffolds by selective laser sintering (SLS) (2) and the manufacture of hydrogel scaffolds by large area maskless photopolymerization (LAMP). SLS is a laser based additive manufacturing method in which an object is built layer-by-layer by fusing powdered material using a computer-controlled scanning laser. LAMP is a massively parallel ultraviolet curing-based process that can be used to create hydrogels from a photomonomer on a large-scale (558x558mm) while maintaining extremely high feature resolution (20µm). In this research, SLS is used to process polycaprolactone (PCL) and composites of PCL with hydroxyapatite (HA) for bone tissue engineering applications while LAMP is used to process polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) which can be used for hard and soft tissue applications.