RAPID prototyping, MANUFACTURING processes, THREE-dimensional printing, and STEREOLITHOGRAPHY
The article focuses on rapid prototyping services along with its significance in designing approaches. Topics discussed include enhancement of manufacturing process with deployment of rapid prototype conditions; consideration of 3D printing technology in different processes such as stereo lithography; and attainment of regulatory approval by several agencies such as the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA).
RAPID prototyping, CULTURAL property, THREE-dimensional printing, COMPUTATIONAL geometry, and STEREOLITHOGRAPHY
Digital fabrication devices exploit basic technologies in order to create tangible reproductions of 3D digital models. Although current 3D printing pipelines still suffer from several restrictions, accuracy in reproduction has reached an excellent level. The manufacturing industry has been the main domain of 3D printing applications over the last decade. Digital fabrication techniques have also been demonstrated to be effective in many other contexts, including the consumer domain. The Cultural Heritage is one of the new application contexts and is an ideal domain to test the flexibility and quality of this new technology. This survey overviews the various fabrication technologies, discussing their strengths, limitations and costs. Various successful uses of 3D printing in the Cultural Heritage are analysed, which should also be useful for other application contexts. We review works that have attempted to extend fabrication technologies in order to deal with the specific issues in the use of digital fabrication in the Cultural Heritage. Finally, we also propose areas for future research. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, ENERGY consumption, THREE-dimensional printing, SUSTAINABILITY, and STEREOLITHOGRAPHY
Additive manufacturing (AM), also referred as three-dimensional printing or rapid prototyping, has been implemented in various areas as one of the most promising new manufacturing technologies in the past three decades. In addition to the growing public interest in developing AM into a potential mainstream manufacturing approach, increasing concerns on environmental sustainability, especially on energy consumption, have been presented. To date, research efforts have been dedicated to quantitatively measuring and analyzing the energy consumption of AM processes. Such efforts only covered partial types of AM processes and explored inadequate factors that might influence the energy consumption. In addition, energy consumption modeling for AM processes has not been comprehensively studied. To fill the research gap, this article presents a mathematical model for the energy consumption of stereolithography (SLA)-based processes. To validate the mathematical model, experiments are conducted to measure the real energy consumption from an SLA-based AM machine. The design of experiments method is adopted to examine the impacts of different parameters and their potential interactions on the overall energy consumption. For the purpose of minimization of the total energy consumption, a response optimization method is used to identify the optimal combination of parameters. The surface quality of the product built using a set of optimal parameters is obtained and compared with parts built with different parameter combinations. The comparison results show that the overall energy consumption from SLA-based AM processes can be significantly reduced through optimal parameter setting, without observable product quality decay. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
PRODUCT design, MACHINING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY, SELECTIVE laser sintering, FUSED deposition modeling, NUMERICAL control of machine tools, and INJECTION molding
The article provides a comparison of various rapid prototyping processes which are available for product designers and outlines their advantages and shortcomings. Processes discussed include the industrial three-dimensional (3D) printing process called stereolithography (SLA), the selective laser sintering (SLS) process and the fused deposition modeling (FDM) process. Processes including computer numeric controlled (CNC) machining and rapid injection molding are also discussed.
This paper first reviews manufacturing technologies for realizing air-filled metal-pipe rectangular waveguides (MPRWGs) and 3-D printing for microwave and millimeter-wave applications. Then, 3-D printed MPRWGs are investigated in detail. Two very different 3-D printing technologies have been considered: low-cost lower-resolution fused deposition modeling for microwave applications and higher-cost high-resolution stereolithography for millimeter-wave applications. Measurements against traceable standards in MPRWGs were performed by the U.K.’s National Physical Laboratory. It was found that the performance of the 3-D printed MPRWGs were comparable with those of standard waveguides. For example, across X-band (8–12 GHz), the dissipative attenuation ranges between 0.2 and 0.6 dB/m, with a worst case return loss of 32 dB; at W-band (75–110 GHz), the dissipative attenuation was 11 dB/m at the band edges, with a worst case return loss of 19 dB. Finally, a high-performance W-band sixth-order inductive iris bandpass filter, having a center frequency of 107.2 GHz and a 6.8-GHz bandwidth, was demonstrated. The measured insertion loss of the complete structure (filter, feed sections, and flanges) was only 0.95 dB at center frequency, giving an unloaded quality factor of 152—clearly demonstrating the potential of this low-cost manufacturing technology, offering the advantages of lightweight rapid prototyping/manufacturing and relatively very low cost when compared with traditional (micro)machining. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
RAPID prototyping, NEW product development, METAL castings, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY, POLYURETHANES, and PLASTER of Paris
Rapid prototyping (RP) technologies have played vital role in product development and validation. Another aspect of RP is rapid tooling (RT). The development and manufacturing of conventional tools (die and molds) take considerable amount of time. RP technologies could be used to shorten the development time of these tools for shorten the time to production. This investigation focuses on the development of turbine blade through RT technique with quality inspection at three different stages, i.e., after manufacturing of master patterns, wax patterns, and casting in metal. Three different materials were considered for RT techniques, i.e., Room temperature vulcanization (RTV) silicon, polyurethane, and plaster of Paris. Master patterns were developed using stereolithography(SLA) and fused deposition modeling (FDM) process. Both master patterns were analyzed for surface roughness and dimensional accuracy. SLA pattern showed better results for surface finish and dimensional accuracy, and it was used for mold manufacturing. Wax patterns were produced from RTV silicon, polyurethane (PU), and plaster of Paris molds,and used for metal casting. Dimensional quality inspection was performed for both wax and metallic parts using noncontact three-dimensional (3D)digitizer. RTV silicon and SLA process were selected as the suitable mold material and process respectively for RT of turbine blade. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, THREE-dimensional printing, ELECTRONICS engineers, BIOPRINTING, and STEREOLITHOGRAPHY
The article discusses the advantages of using three-dimensional (3D) printing in prototyping designs and building samples. Topics covered include how electronics engineers can benefit in 3D printing, the different categories of layer-by-layer techniques used in 3D printing and additive manufacture, and information relating to the cost of objects created using 3D printing. It also discusses other applications of 3D printing.
QUALITY standards, STANDARDIZATION, THREE-dimensional printing, and STEREOLITHOGRAPHY
The article explores the applications of the additive manufacturing technology. Topics discussed include information on the efforts of the American National Standards Institute in standardization of additive manufacturing; discussions on the challenges faced in the quality standards of the additive manufacturing; information on the evolution of 3D printing from stereolithography.
COMPUTER-aided design, PROTOTYPES, FINITE element method, BONES, SCAFFOLDING (Teaching method), BIOENGINEERING, BONE substitutes, COMPUTED tomography, MINERALS, and TISSUE engineering
Rapid prototyping, automatic image processing (computer-aided design (CAD)) and computer-aided manufacturing techniques are opening new and interesting prospects for medical devices and tissue engineering, especially for hard tissues such as bone. The development of a bone high-resolution scaffold prototype using these techniques is described. The results testify to the fidelity existing between microtomographic reconstruction and CAD. Furthermore, stereolithographic manufacturing of this scaffold, which possesses a high degree of similarity to the starting model as monitored by morphological evaluations (mean diameter 569 +/- 147 microm), represents a promising result for regenerative medicine applications. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, CERAMIC industries, MINERAL industries, THREE-dimensional printing, and STEREOLITHOGRAPHY
The article reports developments in additive manufacturing or three-dimensional (3D) printing technology and its benefits to the ceramics industry as of August 2015. Also cited are the laser stereolithography (SLA) technology dedicated to ceramics production, several ceramic paste products like alumina, zirconia, and hydroxyapatite, as well as the development of the so-called loaded resins.
RAPID prototyping, THREE-dimensional printing, 3-D printers, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY, and LASER sintering
The article reports on how businesses can use additive manufacturing or 3-D printing for producing jigs, fixtures and other production parts in addition to producing prototypes. Topics discussed include fuse deposition modeling, PolyJet technology, stereolithography, laser sintering and metal sintering. Also mentioned are the advantages of creating jigs and fixtures using additive manufacturing and how to implement additive manufacturing in design and development process.
RAPID prototyping, MANUFACTURING processes, MASS production, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY, SILICON, and LASERS
The article focuses on the stereolithography (SLA), an accuarate process which can be used for rapid prototyping. It mentions that the SLA involves the production of an original master being casted in a silicon mold. It adds that the components produced by a laser are tested by SLA before entering into mass-production.
RAPID prototyping, TECHNOLOGICAL innovations & economics, THREE-dimensional printing, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY, 3-D printers, and MANUFACTURING industry equipment
The article focuses on additive manufacturing, also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, in 2015. Topics include the invention of stereolithography in 1986, the creation of reverse additive manufacturing by a group of researchers led by Joseph DeSimone, and their paper published in the periodical "Science" on how to speed the additive manufacturing process.
RAPID prototyping, THREE-dimensional printing, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY, and 3-D printers
The article provides an overview of the development of three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. The process of printing solid objects by progressive layering was first named stereolithography (SLA), patented and invented by Charles W. Hull in 1983. Industrial companies and universities started to use 3D printing by late 1980s for rapid prototyping. More than 50,000 3D printers were traded in 2013 and is anticipated to double by 2015.
The article presents information on the development in the additive manufacturing sector since the industrial revolution, highlighting the challenges faced by the industry. Topics include the strenuous traditional manufacturing process, utilization of stereolithography and rapid prototyping, and the technological innovations brought in the industry.
The geometrical error in the stereolithography process is analysed using a stochastic approach. This approach is based on a unified methodology, developed by the authors, for studying the mechanical error in different rapid prototyping processes. The tolerances and clearances have been assumed to be random variables. The coordinates of a point on the resin surface, traced by the laser beam, are expressed as a function of random variables. In a numerical example, the geometrical error has been found for a grid of points traced by the laser beam. The three-sigma error bands are plotted when tracing example curves. This is the band in which the laser beams of 99.73% of machines, produced on a mass scale, lie on the work surface for the given tolerances and clearances. Stringent values of tolerances and clearances reduce the error at the tool tip, but the cost of manufacturing and assembling the machines may become prohibitive. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]