MANUFACTURING processes, LIBRARIANS, LIBRARIES, and ACADEMIC libraries
Prototyping is an incremental process that facilitates those looking to make changes in products, services, or resources. Originating in industrial fabrication process, prototyping can be adapted by librarians to examine changes made to library services, amenities, and resources. They offer a cost-effective way of trying something new and needed, to ensure that patron needs are met. This article modifies prototyping into a five-step process and reviews five examples where the Lee Library used prototyping to inform library decisions to inform the development of library services, amenities, processes, and resources to better serve its patrons. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
As relationship marketing research evolved, a number of key constructs emerged. Some scholars have argued that these constructs are not conceptually or empirically distinct. We investigate this phenomenon based on the premise that sustained research effort towards studying conceptually overlapping/redundant constructs, while treating them as independent, can hamper the development of the field. We use prototyping, a method adopted from psychology, to examine consumers’ views of these constructs, and then identify relationship contexts where constructs are distinct or redundant. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Medlej, Maroun, Stuban, Steven M. F., and Dever, Jason R.
Defense Acquisition Research Journal: A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University. Oct2017, Vol. 24 Issue 4, p626-655. 30p.
SYSTEMS engineering, RAPID prototyping, DEFENSE industries, MANUFACTURING processes, and LIKELIHOOD ratio tests
In 2007, John Young, then-Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics, mandated the use of "competitive prototyping" strategies in defense acquisition. Further, Department of Defense Instruction 5000.02 includes considerations for prototyping in the acquisition strategy. A 2017 memorandum circulated by Young lists five prototyping benefits, which are expected to "reduce technical risk, validate designs, validate cost estimates, evaluate manufacturing processes, and refine requirements." However, a process to assess whether, and to what extent, a prototype will be or has been successful in achieving these benefits is not currently in use by the Department of Defense. Because cost increases and schedule extension downsides are inherent in prototyping, such an assessment is critical. This research proposes an approach for assessing the likelihood of achieving expected prototyping benefits based on identifying the factors yielding these benefits as well as their relative weights. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Baldassarre, Brian, Konietzko, Jan, Brown, Phil, Calabretta, Giulia, Bocken, Nancy, Karpen, Ingo O., and Hultink, Erik Jan
Journal of Cleaner Production. May2020, Vol. 255, pN.PAG-N.PAG. 1p.
BUSINESS models, SUSTAINABLE engineering, INDUSTRIAL goods, INNOVATIONS in business, DESIGN science, and MANUFACTURING processes
Next to the redesign of industrial products and processes, sustainable business model innovation is a strategic approach to integrate environmental and social concerns into the objectives and operations of organizations. One of the major challenges of this approach is that many promising business model ideas fail to reach the market, which is needed to achieve impact. In the literature, the issue is referred to as a "design-implementation gap." This paper explores how that critical gap may be bridged. In doing so, we contribute to sustainable business model innovation theory and practice. We contribute to theory by connecting sustainable business model innovation with business experimentation and strategic design , two innovation approaches that leverage prototyping as a way to iteratively implement business ideas early on. Using a design science research methodology, we combine theoretical insights from these three literatures into a tool for setting up small-scale pilots of sustainable business models. We apply, evaluate, and improve our tool through a rigorous process by working with nine startups and one multinational company. As a result, we provide normative theory in terms of the sustainable business model innovation process, explaining that piloting a prototype forces organizations to simultaneously consider the desirability (i.e., what users want), feasibility (i.e., what is technically achievable), viability (i.e., what is financially possible), and sustainability (i.e., what is economically, socially and environmentally acceptable) of a new business model. Doing so early on is functional to bridge the design-implementation gap of sustainable business models. We contribute to practice with the tool itself, which organizations can use to translate sustainable business model ideas defined "on paper" into small-scale pilots as a first implementation step. We encourage future research building on the limitations of this exploratory study by working with a larger sample of companies through longitudinal case studies, to further explain how these pilots can be executed successfully. Image 1 • Many business model ideas aimed at integrating sustainability into the objectives and operations of organizations fail to reach the market. • Prototyping allows bridging this design-implementation gap of sustainable business models by shifting the focus from ideation to execution. • We propose a tool that organizations can use to plan and execute small-scale pilots for implementing sustainable business models. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
ECONOMIC impact, RAPID prototyping, PRODUCT design, RESEARCH & development, INNOVATIONS in business, and ENGINEERING students
Abstract: Research and development laboratories in universities and firms around the world try to maximize innovation with a limited set of resources. However, questions remain about the influence of resource constraints on idea generation in early-stage product design. Multiple embedded case studies were conducted with engineering students and faculty at two university campuses in Mexico. Students developed sketches for products that would satisfy an open-ended design problem in a constrained-resource setting, where the variables were the timing of when information about these constraints was revealed, and the regular prototyping environment of the student. The evidence suggests that the timing of awareness of constraints can have an impact on design outcomes, but that this effect varies depending on the designer's regular prototyping resource environment. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
Defense Acquisition Research Journal: A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University. Jan2018, Vol. 25 Issue 1, p2-29. 28p.
TECHNOLOGICAL innovations, COMMAND of troops, MILITARY technology, and DISRUPTIVE technologies
The Department of Defense (DoD) has recently launched several initiatives to accelerate technological innovation and sustain the U.S. military's technological leadership in an environment of increasing global competition. These include six new or expanded programs to enhance the use of experimentation and prototyping under the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the military services. This study examines the six programs and compares their features in light of historical case studies of past disruptive military innovations and the success factors that enabled these innovations to progress from idea to prototype to fielded military capability. Best practices are identified that can be shared between the six programs, or implemented in the design of new DoD initiatives to promote and secure U.S. technological dominance on the battlefields of tomorrow. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Lichter, Horst, Schneider-Hufschmidt, Matthias, and Züllighoven, Heinz
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering. Nov94, Vol. 20 Issue 11, p825-832. 8p. 3 Color Photographs, 1 Chart.
RAPID prototyping, PROTOTYPES, SOFTWARE engineering, COMPUTER software development, USER interfaces (Computer systems), and SYSTEMS design
Prototyping, a method and technique frequently used in many engineering disciplines, has been adopted as a technique in software engineering to improve the calculation of new projects involving risks. However, there has so far been a lack of documented experience with the use of prototyping in industrial software production. The present work tries to close this gap. First, we introduce central prototyping concepts and terminology. In the subsequent section we present five industrial software projects in which explicit use was made of prototyping. Based on our analysis of these projects we present the resulting conclusions: prototyping means more than rapidly developing user interfaces; prototyping is a central part of a development strategy; prototyping means end user involvement; finding the right mixture of prototypes improves the development process. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
In order to investigate how the use of robots may impact everyday tasks, twelve participants in our study interacted with a University of Hertfordshire Sunflower robot over a period of 8 weeks in the university's Robot House. Participants performed two constrained tasks, one physical and one cognitive, four times over this period. Participant responses were recorded using a variety of measures including the System Usability Scale and the NASA Task Load Index. The use of the robot had an impact on the experienced workload of the participants diﬀerently for the two tasks, and this eﬀect changed over time. In the physical task, there was evidence of adaptation to the robot's behavior. For the cognitive task, the use of the robot was experienced as more frustrating in the later weeks. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]