IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics. Sep2019, Vol. 34 Issue 9, p8715-8723. 9p.
RAPID prototyping, CURRENT-voltage characteristics, and FEEDBACK (Psychology)
Using a photovoltaic (PV) emulator (PVE) simplifies the testing of the PV generation system. However, conventional controllers used for PVEs suffer from oscillating output voltage, requiring a high number of iterations, or being too complex to be implemented. This paper proposes a controller based on a resistance feedback control strategy that produces a stable and fast converging operating point for the PVE. The resistance feedback control strategy requires a new type of PV model, which is the current–resistance (I–R) PV model. This model is computed using a binary search method at a fast convergence rate. It is combined with a closed-loop buck converter using a proportional-integral controller to form the resistance feedback control strategy. The PVE's controller is implemented into dSPACE ds1104 hardware platform for experimental validation. The acquired experimental results show that the proposed PVE is able to follow the current–voltage characteristic of the PV module accurately. In addition, the PVE's efficiency is more than 90% under maximum power point operation. The transient response of the proposed PVE is similar to the PV panel during irradiance changes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Plastics Engineering. Oct 2019, Vol. 75 Issue 9, p40, 6 p.
Time to market, Thermoplastics -- Product development, Product development, and 3D printing
The laborious process of product development is changing. The evolution of rapid prototyping, 3D printing, and additive manufacturing will continue to affect the process for the better, developing accurate and [...]
Policy & Practice. June 2019, Vol. 77 Issue 3, p12, 4 p.
Government regulation, Company business management, Human services -- Laws, regulations and rules, Human services -- Psychological aspects, Pilot projects -- Management, Pilot projects -- Psychological aspects, Policy sciences -- Methods, Policy sciences -- Psychological aspects, and Prototypes (Psychology) -- Analysis
"I didn't know it would take this long, or what the next stepes were. I waited a long time and had to hurry to complete some forms before a deadline. [...]
This paper presents a discrete-time neural inverse optimal control for induction motors, which is implemented on a rapid control prototyping (RCP) system using a C2000 Microcontroller-Simulink platform. Such controller addresses the solution of three issues: system identification, trajectory tracking, and state estimation, which are solved independently. The neural controller is based on a recurrent high order neural network (RHONN), which is trained with an extended Kalman filter. The RHONN is an identifier to obtain an accurate motor model, which is robust to external disturbances and parameter variations. The inverse optimal controller is used to force the system to track a desired trajectory and to reject undesired disturbances. Moreover, the controller is based on a neural model and does not need the a-priori knowledge of motor parameters. A supertwisting observer is implemented to estimate the rotor magnetic fluxes. The hub of the RCP system is a TMS320f28069M MCU, which is an embedded combination of a 32-bit C28x DSP core and a real-time control accelerator. This Microcontroller is fully programmable from the Simulink environment. Simulation and experimental results illustrate the performance of the proposed controller and the RCP system, and a comparison with a control algorithm without the neural identifier is also included. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
TARGET costing, PROTOTYPES, PRODUCT design, RAPID prototyping, and SUPPLIERS
Prototyping allows firms to evaluate the technical feasibility of alternative product designs and to better estimate their costs. We study a collaborative prototyping scenario in which a manufacturer involves a supplier in the prototyping process by letting the supplier make detailed design choices for critical components and provide prototypes for testing. While the supplier can obtain private information about the costs, the manufacturer uses target costing to gain control over the design choice. We show that involving the supplier in the prototyping process has an important influence on the manufacturer's optimal decisions. The collaboration results in information asymmetry, which makes parallel prototyping less attractive and potentially reverses the optimal testing sequence under sequential prototyping: It may be optimal to test designs in increasing order of attractiveness to avoid that the supplier does not release technically and economically feasible prototypes for strategic reasons. We also find that the classical target costing approaches (cost‐ and market‐based) need to be adjusted in the presence of alternative designs: Due to the strategic behavior of suppliers, it is not always optimal to provide identical target costs for designs with similar cost and performance estimates, nor to provide different target costs for dissimilar designs. Furthermore, the timing is important: While committing upfront to carefully chosen target costs reduces the supplier's strategic behavior, in some circumstances, the manufacturer can take advantage of this behavior by remaining flexible and specifying the second prototype's target costs later. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Robinson, Douglas K.R., Lagnau, Axel, and Boon, Wouter P.C.
Technological Forecasting & Social Change. Sept, 2019, Vol. 146, 733
3D printing -- Methods and Evolution -- Methods
Keywords Branching path; Trajectory; Innovation pathways; Paradigm; Industry scenario; Meso-level Highlights * New technology fields can be represented as paths that build momentum, fork and evolve. * Forecasting Innovation Pathways (FIP) require a further developed theory of path emergence and evolution. * 3D printing can be represented by a dominant design: a tri-partite configuration that is filled in a variety of ways. * 3D printing is a field which evolved first around prototyping applications and has branched out to new applications. * The interplay of foreseen applications and the filling of the tri-partite schema motivate branching from rapid prototyping. Abstract In recent years, the Forecasting Innovation Pathway approach (FIP) has shown to be a promising set of tools to capture potential developments in emerging fields through capturing indications of endogenous futures. However, the FIP approach is reliant on a clear demarcated area to study, a challenge for emerging technology fields where uncertainty and rhetoric abound. This paper presents an addition to the FIP toolbox that helps characterise and demarcate boundaries of emerging fields to allow for deeper analysis through other FIP methods. We illustrate this approach through an exercise for 3D printing technology (also known as Additive Manufacturing). We show that 3D printing can be represented by a dominant design: a tri-partite configuration of printer, material and digital design software. In the past decade we have seen significant branching from applications in rapid-prototyping to medical, fashion, aeronautics and supply chain management with a variety of elements coming together in tri-partite configurations. The paper adds to the current FTA literature an approach building on evolutionary theories of technical change to help with such situations -- emerging, evolving and branching 'innovation pathways'. Moreover, we developed a methodology to construct these innovation paths. Author Affiliation: (a) Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Sciences Innovations Societes (LISIS), CNRS (UMR 9003), IFRIS, Universite Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallee, France (b) Institute for Innovation and Public Purpose, University College London, UK (c) Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, Netherlands * Corresponding author at: Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Sciences Innovations Societes (LISIS), CNRS (UMR 9003), IFRIS, Universite Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallee, France. Article History: Received 31 January 2018; Revised 4 June 2018; Accepted 11 July 2018 Byline: Douglas K.R. Robinson [email@example.com] (a,b,*), Axel Lagnau (a), Wouter P.C. Boon (c)
RAPID prototyping, SEARCH algorithms, DIELECTRIC-loaded antennas, THREE-dimensional printing, and PERMITTIVITY
A prototyping method for dielectrically loaded antennas is presented. Dielectric loading has been used with horn antennas, feeds, and lenses. Dielectrics have also been used for coating antennas submerged in water and biological matter and have led to improvements in bandwidth and efficiency as well as antenna miniaturisation. The authors present a new technique to produce variable dielectrics with permittivity from 6 to 28 using two commonly available powders, titanium dioxide (used in foods) and magnesium silicate (used in talcum powder). An example spherical helical ball antenna is used to demonstrate the process. In this antenna, the mixed powders were encased in a 3D printed shell that achieved a reduction in diameter of the spherical antenna by a factor of 1.85. The technique aids rapid prototyping and optimisation using search algorithms. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]