This article presents a novel sensor for detecting and measuring angular rotation and proximity, intended for rapid prototyping machines. The sensor is based on a complementary split-ring resonator (CSRR) driven by a conductor-backed coplanar waveguide (CBCPW). The sensor has a planar topology, which makes it simple and cost-effective to produce and accurate in measuring both physical quantities. The sensor has two components, a rotor and a stator: the first of these (the CSRR) can rotate around its axis and translate along the plane normal to the ground of the CBCPW. A detailed theoretical and numerical analysis, along with a circuit model, of the unique sensor design is presented. The proposed sensor exhibits linear response for measuring angular rotation and proximity in the range of 30°–60° and 0–200 μm, respectively. Another distinctive feature of the rotation and proximity sensor is the wide frequency band of applicability, which is an integral part of its novel design and is implemented through various dielectric material loadings on the CSRR. In the prototype of the proposed device, the stator (CBCPW) is fabricated on a 0.508-mm-thick RF-35 substrate, whereas the CSRR-based rotor is fabricated on TLY-5 and RF-35 substrates. The angular rotation, proximity, operating band selection, and sensitivity are measured using a vector network analyzer and are found to be good matches to the simulated and theoretical results. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, DECISION making, ANALYTIC hierarchy process, GREY relational analysis, FUZZY numbers, and STRENGTH of materials
A multitude of rapid prototyping (RP) systems and technologies have come up since the introduction of additive process. Owing to the enlarging number of these systems with distinctive efficacy, the problem of selecting an appropriate system for a particular requirement is a cumbersome task. Henceforth, this work comes up with a strategy based on multi-attribute decision making to select a most suitable RP system. The presence of subjectivity in decision making as well as the existence of imprecision from various sources emphasize the methods which must consider uncertainty and vagueness. A decision advisor based on uncertainty theories, including fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) and grey relational analysis (GRA) has been introduced. It provides a comprehensive database comprising thirty nine commercially available RP systems. The evaluation attributes consisting of machine cost, accuracy, layer thickness, machine speed, material cost, net build size volume, machine weight, surface roughness, and material strength were utilized to characterize the different machines. The FAHP based on trapezoidal fuzzy number was implemented to determine the priority weights of various attributes, while the GRA was employed to realize the best RP system and technology. The authors believe that this system has the potential to transform into a fully developed RP selection system. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Roymohapatra, Sitansusekhar, Gore, Ganesh R., Yadav, Akanksha, Patil, Mahesh B., Rengarajan, Krishnan S., Iyer, Subramanian S., and Baghini, Maryam Shojaei
IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits & Systems. May2020, Vol. 39 Issue 5, p1073-1083. 11p.
RAPID prototyping, TECHNOLOGY, SEMICONDUCTOR devices, and INTERPOLATION
In this paper, a new look-up table (LUT) method is proposed to reduce the simulation time and the run time memory requirement for large logic and mixed signal simulations. In the proposed method, for the first time, circuit with multiple devices is replaced by one LUT model, called circuit LUT. The replacement results in significant reduction of the run time memory requirement. The replacement also reduces the number of interpolation steps to be performed at every Newton–Raphson iteration during the simulation that results in significant reduction of simulation time. With the proposed method, the simulation speed is improved by two times over the conventional LUT models developed for devices. In addition, 25% reduction in the run time memory requirement is also achieved by the proposed method. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
WIRELESS power transmission, RAPID prototyping, RADIO frequency, GOLD coatings, and STAINLESS steel
This article presents an electromagnetically powered stent designed for hyperthermia treatment of in-stent restenosis. The stent device based on medical-grade stainless steel serves as a radio frequency (RF) inductive receiver to produce mild heating wirelessly through resonant-coupling power transfer, while acting as a mechanical scaffold inside an artery similar to commercial stents. The device and its custom transmitter are prototyped and optimized to show efficient wireless power transfer and stent heating through in vitro tests. The inductive stent with its helical pattern is gold coated to achieve a $3.5\times $ higher quality ($Q$) factor, improving heating performance of the device. The combinational use of independent resonant antennas with the power antenna is found to significantly boost stent temperature by up to 96% with an intermediate tissue layer. Upon matching the frequencies at which the $Q$ factors of the inductive stent, power antenna, and booster antenna are peaked, the stent excited through 10 mm-thick tissue exhibits a temperature increase of 18 °C, well over a necessary level for targeted hyperthermia treatment. The prototype achieves heating efficiencies (HEs) of 15.5–3.2 °C/W with a tissue thickness of 5–15 mm. These results indicate that the proposed resonant-heating stent system with the prototyped transmitter is promising for further development toward its clinical application. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Market trend/market analysis, 3D printing -- Innovations, 3D printing -- Forecasts and trends, Prototypes, Engineering -- Design and construction, Prototypes, Engineering -- Forecasts and trends, Thermoforming -- Forecasts and trends, and Engineering firms -- Innovations
The use of 3D-printed tooling for thermoformed parts is an emerging development in additive manufacturing that is paying significant dividends in terms of reduced tooling cost and time for prototype [...]
The British Journal of Sociology. June 2020, Vol. 71 Issue 3, p503, 17 p.
Keywords: curatorial interventions; public frictions; smart city; urban laboratory; urban prototyping Abstract The use of prototypes as testing instruments has become a common strategy in the innovation of services and products and increasingly in the implementation of 'smart' urban policies through living labs or pilots. As a technique for validating hypotheses about the future performance of products or policies, prototyping is based on the idea of generating original knowledge through the failures produced during the testing process. Through the study of an experimentation and prototyping project developed in Santiago de Chile called 'Shared Streets for a Low-Carbon District,' I analyse the technique of prototyping as a political device that can make visible (or invisible) certain entities and issues, determining what the experimental entities can do and say. I will show how the technique of prototyping defines modes of participation, what is visible and thinkable, what can be spoken and what is unspeakable. In this sense, I examine two ambivalent capacities of prototyping: as a mechanism of management and enrolment that seeks to prescribe normativities (problem-validating prototype) and as an event that can make frictions tangible, articulating matters of concern and ways to open up alternative scenarios (problem-making prototype). Byline: Martin Tironi
POWER electronics, ATMOSPHERIC temperature, HEAT transfer coefficient, COMPUTATIONAL fluid dynamics, VIRTUAL prototypes, and HEAT transfer
To develop a thermal model for air-cooled plate–fin heatsink and evaluate its thermal performance, empirical equations are available to rapidly calculate the pressure drop and heat transfer coefficients for the fins. Besides the heat transfer coefficients, the local air temperature also affects the heat transfer of the fins, which rises along the channel by absorbing the released heat from the fins. In this article, a heatsink model to account for the air temperature rise is proposed, and a thermal circuit model is used to correlate the increased air temperature and the absorbed heat at the fin boundary. With this convective boundary, the temperature distribution for the base plate of the heatsink is calculated by adopting finite-difference method (FDM), which analyzes the conductive heat transfer for the base plate. Both of them have been programed in MATLAB software, and the calculated temperature by the proposed models is compared with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. A fan-cooled plate–fin heatsink for a half-bridge power electronics inverter is tested in the laboratory as an example, and the thermal results obtained from the proposed models are within 10% of error with respect to the CFD simulation results and experimental results. The proposed method is also faster than the CFD simulation. The proposed accurate and rapid thermal modeling method will be essential for virtual prototyping and layout/geometry optimization of power electronics systems. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Recently, multi-FPGA platforms have become a popular choice to prototype complex digital systems. This is because of unique advantages such as high frequency and real world testing experience that are offered when compared to other pre-silicon testing techniques. However, one of several challenges faced by multi-FPGA prototyping is the requirement of an efficient back end flow. Partitioning is a key part of the back end flow of multi-FPGA systems and it directly affects the quality of final prototyped design. In this work, we explore two different partitioning approaches: one is multilevel; while the other is hierarchical partitioning approach. For experimentation, we use a suite of fourteen large benchmarks. Experimental results reveal that the multilevel approach gives 12.5% better frequency results for mono-cluster benchmarks while the hierarchical approach gives 13% better results for multi-cluster benchmarks. Furthermore, the hierarchical approach requires, on average, 60% less execution time when compared to the multilevel partitioning approach. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Keywords Convolutional neural network; Hardware acceleration; Rapid system prototyping; Binarization; FPGA Abstract The huge model size and high computational complexity make emerging convolutional neural network (CNN) models unsuitable to deploy on current embedded or edge computing devices. Recently the binary neural network (BNN) is explored to help reduce network model size and avoid complex multiplication. In this paper, a binary network acceleration framework for rapid system prototyping is proposed to promote the deployment of CNNs on embedded devices. Firstly trainable scaling factors are adopted in binary network training to improve network accuracy performance. The hardware/software co-design framework supports various compact network structures such as residual block, 1 x 1 squeeze convolution layer, and depthwise separable convolution. With flexible network binarization and efficient hardware architecture optimization, the acceleration system is able to achieve over 2 TOPS throughput performance comparable to modern desktop GPU with much higher power efficiency. Author Affiliation: Department of Electrical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China * Corresponding author. Article History: Received 2 December 2019; Revised 19 February 2020; Accepted 8 March 2020 Byline: Zhe Xu [email@example.com], Ray C.C. Cheung [firstname.lastname@example.org] (*)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics. Sep2019, Vol. 34 Issue 9, p8715-8723. 9p.
RAPID prototyping, CURRENT-voltage characteristics, and ELECTRONIC feedback
Using a photovoltaic (PV) emulator (PVE) simplifies the testing of the PV generation system. However, conventional controllers used for PVEs suffer from oscillating output voltage, requiring a high number of iterations, or being too complex to be implemented. This paper proposes a controller based on a resistance feedback control strategy that produces a stable and fast converging operating point for the PVE. The resistance feedback control strategy requires a new type of PV model, which is the current–resistance (I–R) PV model. This model is computed using a binary search method at a fast convergence rate. It is combined with a closed-loop buck converter using a proportional-integral controller to form the resistance feedback control strategy. The PVE's controller is implemented into dSPACE ds1104 hardware platform for experimental validation. The acquired experimental results show that the proposed PVE is able to follow the current–voltage characteristic of the PV module accurately. In addition, the PVE's efficiency is more than 90% under maximum power point operation. The transient response of the proposed PVE is similar to the PV panel during irradiance changes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Journal of Information Systems Education. Summer2020, Vol. 31 Issue 3, p179-186. 8p.
INFORMATION storage & retrieval systems, USER interfaces, HUMAN-computer interaction, SYSTEM analysis, SOFTWARE engineering, DESIGN students, ACTIVE learning, and EDUCATION software
Given the ubiquity of interfaces on computing devices, it is essential for future Information Systems (IS) professionals to understand the ramifications of good user interface (UI) design. This article provides instructions on how to efficiently and effectively teach IS students about "fit," a Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) concept, through a paper prototyping activity. Although easy to explain, the concept of "fit" can be difficult to understand without repeated practice. Practically, designing "fit" into UIs can be cost-prohibitive because working prototypes are often beyond students' technical skillset. Accordingly, based on principles of active learning, we show how to use paper prototyping to demonstrate "fit" in a hands-on class exercise. We provide detailed step-by-step instructions to plan, setup, and present the exercise to guide students through the process of "fit" in UI design. As a result of this activity, students are better able to employ both theoretical and practical applications of "fit" in UI design and implementation. This exercise is applicable in any course that includes UI design, such as principles of HCI, systems analysis and design, software engineering, and project management. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Conservation Biology. Dec 2019, Vol. 33 Issue 6, p1448, 3 p.
***** No abstract is available for this article. Article Note: Article impact statement: Web-application development frameworks enable the creation of decision-support tool prototypes for actionable conservation science. CAPTION(S): Table 1. List of web-application development frameworks that might be useful for conservation scientists. Byline: Denis Valle, Kok Ben Toh, Justin Millar
Contract award notice: Delivery of a rapid prototyping platform with software (poland-torun: Computer platforms) 1. The subject of the contract is the delivery of a rapid prototyping platform with software [...]
TARGET costing, PROTOTYPES, PRODUCT design, RAPID prototyping, and SUPPLIERS
Prototyping allows firms to evaluate the technical feasibility of alternative product designs and to better estimate their costs. We study a collaborative prototyping scenario in which a manufacturer involves a supplier in the prototyping process by letting the supplier make detailed design choices for critical components and provide prototypes for testing. While the supplier can obtain private information about the costs, the manufacturer uses target costing to gain control over the design choice. We show that involving the supplier in the prototyping process has an important influence on the manufacturer's optimal decisions. The collaboration results in information asymmetry, which makes parallel prototyping less attractive and potentially reverses the optimal testing sequence under sequential prototyping: It may be optimal to test designs in increasing order of attractiveness to avoid that the supplier does not release technically and economically feasible prototypes for strategic reasons. We also find that the classical target costing approaches (cost‐ and market‐based) need to be adjusted in the presence of alternative designs: Due to the strategic behavior of suppliers, it is not always optimal to provide identical target costs for designs with similar cost and performance estimates, nor to provide different target costs for dissimilar designs. Furthermore, the timing is important: While committing upfront to carefully chosen target costs reduces the supplier's strategic behavior, in some circumstances, the manufacturer can take advantage of this behavior by remaining flexible and specifying the second prototype's target costs later. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]