This article reports that rapid prototyping has evolved from a relatively simple modeling technique that allows design engineers to "test" their ideas in three dimensions to a sophisticated custom-manufacturing tool that may one day find its place alongside the copy machines at the local copy center or in the parts department at the local automobile dealership. Direct metal deposition is a laser-melting process that uses a powder nozzle to deposit metal powder onto existing tools to build the components layer by layer. While the last few years have seen the development of new rapid-prototyping technologies and processes that overcome the geometry problem, the available materials have not had adequate properties to enable them to build production-quality parts. INSET: High-power lasers enable metal-powder prototyping.
The article focuses on enhancement of advanced freeform optics by using subaperture stitching. Topics include advancement in freeform fabrication technology with improved diamond turning, grinding, and polishing machines; information on profilometry which is a cost-effective technique for measuring aspheric shapes; and an information that subaperture stitching lacks the ghosting and other diffraction artifacts in a computer-generated hologram that can corrupt mid-spatial frequency estimates.
COMPUTER software, RAPID prototyping, LIGHTING, ENERGY consumption, and OPTICS
The article offers information on software tools that design freeform optics for illumination. Topics discussed include newly developed tools integrated with commercial illumination software quickly create freeform reflective and refractive surfaces, freeform optics tailor resulting illumination pattern to meet system requirements such as enhance the visual appeal and improve energy efficiency.
RAPID prototyping, SOLID freeform fabrication, SUBMILLIMETER waves, PAPER, and DIFFRACTIVE optical elements
The article discusses the experimental research by researchers at the Warsaw University of Technology of warsaw, Poland and the University of Savoie of Le Bourget du Lac, France on the problems of fabrication process for rapid prototyping. It develops binary phased-based diffracted lenses from a commercially purchased paper to address the fabrication process problem. It suggests that nonparaxial paper diffractive lens with terahertz radiation for quick prototyping.
RAPID prototyping, ELLIPSOIDS, AUTOMOBILE lighting, STREET lighting, ANTENNAS (Electronics), and LIGHT emitting diodes
The article focuses on designing freeform surfaces, which are used for illumination applications such as headlights, streetlights, and antennas. It says that illumination systems using freeform surfaces may result to compact systems with long lifetime, low power consumption, and high system efficiency, if combined with light-emitting diodes (LEDs). It highlights the dominant surface construction methods such as flux mapping method and the method of supporting ellipsoids.
RAPID prototyping, LIGHTING, LIGHT emitting diodes, and ELECTROLUMINESCENT devices
The article offers information on the use of freeform optics as a light collectors and uniformizers for spotlight and directional-floodlight general-illumination light emitting diodes (LEDs). An LED freeform illumination lens-design approach developed by researchers at the University of Arizona is mentioned. It states that the goal of a good freeform optical design for LED floodlighting is to obtain good intensity uniformity throughout the floodlit area.
Reports that applications engineers at GSI Lumonics Inc. have developed a software that allows users to create simple, virtual prototypes from the company's line of galvanometers and resonant scanners. Selection of a starting configuration by defining the scanner/mirror combination or application of interest; Graphical depiction of the performance results.
The article offers information on a parallel projection galvanometer scanning (PPGS) technique developed at Wenzhou University in Wenzhou, China, which enables laser materials processing on freeform surfaces. It states that three dimensional (3D) galvanometer scanning system was designed to address the challenges of handling laser materials processing. It adds that PPG method does not require the use of expensive robots or five-axis machine tools.